Advertisement

Parasitology Research

, Volume 114, Supplement 1, pp 155–164 | Cite as

Efficacy of Emodepside/Praziquantel Spot-on (Profender®) against adult Aelurostrongylus abstrusus Nematodes in Experimentally Infected Cats

  • Claudia BöhmEmail author
  • Sonja Wolken
  • Manuela Schnyder
  • Walter Basso
  • Peter Deplazes
  • Angela Di Cesare
  • Katrin Deuster
  • Roland Schaper
Open Access
Original Article

Abstract

The adulticidal efficacy of a topical combination of emodepside 2.1 % (w/v) plus praziquantel 8.6 % (w/v) (Profender® spot-on for cats, Bayer) against adult Aelurostrongylus abstrusus nematodes was evaluated in two randomised, placebo-controlled laboratory efficacy studies. Each study involved 16 cats experimentally inoculated with L3 (800 and 600 each in studies no. 1 and 2, respectively) and randomised into two study groups of 8 cats each after onset of patency. While cats in the treatment group in study no. 1 received a single spot-on application at the minimum therapeutic dose (3 mg/kg emodepside and 12 mg/kg praziquantel), cats in study no. 2 were treated twice with an interval of 14 days. The faecal output of first stage larvae was monitored throughout the study. Necropsy was conducted 4 or 5 weeks after the (first) treatment and the worm counts were used for efficacy calculations. The control groups showed a geometric mean of the total worm count (live and dead worms) of 28.8 (study no. 1) and 17.6 (study no. 2), respectively. All control animals were infected. While the single treatment in study no. 1 resulted in a reduction of the total worm burden by 73.0 % (p = 0.0070), the treatment protocol in study no. 2 was 99.2 % effective (p = 0.0035). Based on live worm counts, the efficacy in study no. 2 was 100 % (p = 0.0030). It is concluded that two applications of Profender® spot-on given two weeks apart represent a safe and highly efficacious treatment regime against feline aelurostrongylosis.

Keywords

Praziquantel Emodepside Faecal Examination Fenbendazole Worm Count 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ash LR (1970) Diagnostic morphology of the third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, and Anafilaroides rostratus (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea). J Parasitol 56:249–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baermann G (1917) Eine einfache Methode zur Auffindung von Ankylostomum-(Nematoden)-Larven in Erdproben. Tijdschr Diergeneesk 57:131–137Google Scholar
  3. Barrs VR, Swinney GR, Martin P, Nicoll RG (1999) Concurrent Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infection and salmonellosis in a kitten. Aust Vet J 77:229–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brianti E, Gaglio G, Giannetto S, Annoscia G, Latrofa MS, Dantas-Torres F, Traversa D, Otranto D (2012) Troglostrongylus brevior and Troglostrongylus subcrenatus (Strongylida: Crenosomatidae) as agents of broncho-pulmonary infestation in domestic cats. Parasit Vectors 5:178. doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-178 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burgu A, Sarimehmetoğlu O (2004) Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infection in two cats. Vet Rec 154:602–604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Di Cesare A, Di Francesco G, Frangipane di Regalbono A, Eleni C, De Liberato C, Marruchella G, Iorio R, Malatesta D, Romanucci MR, Bongiovanni L, Cassini R, Traversa D (2015a) Retrospective study on the occurrence of the feline lungworms Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus spp. in endemic areas of Italy. Vet J 203:233–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Di Cesare A, Iorio R, Crisi P, Paoletti B, Di Costanzo R, Dimitri CF, Traversa D (2015b) Treatment of Troglostrongylus brevior (Metastrongyloidea, Crenosomatidae) in mixed lungworm infections using spot-on emodepside. J Feline Med Surg 17:181–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Grandi G, Calvi LE, Venco L, Paratici C, Genchi C, Memmi D, Kramer LH (2005) Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (cat lungworm) infection in five cats from Italy. Vet Parasitol 134:177–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hamilton JM (1967) The number of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae required to produce pulmonary disease in the cat. J Comp Pathol 77:343–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hamilton JM, Weatherley A, Chapman AJ (1984) Treatment of lungworm disease in the cat with fenbendazole. Vet Rec 114:40–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hobmaier M, Hobmaier A (1935a) Intermediate hosts of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus of the cat. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 32:1641–1647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hobmaier M, Hobmaier A (1935b) Mammalian phase of the lungworm Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in the cat. J Am Vet Med Assoc 87:191–198Google Scholar
  13. Iannino F, Iannetti L, Paganico D, Podaliri Vulpiani M (2013) Evaluation of the efficacy of selamectin spot-on in cats infested with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Strongylida, Filariodidae) in a Central Italy cat shelter. Vet Parasitol 197:258–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jacobs DE, Arakawa A, Courtney CH, Gemmell MA, McCall JW, Myers GH, Vanparijs O (1994) World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics for dogs and cats. Vet Parasitol 52:179–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jefferies R, Vrhovec MG, Wallner N, Catalan DR (2010) Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus sp. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) infections in cats inhabiting Ibiza, Spain. Vet Parasitol 173:344–348PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kirkpatrick CE, Megella C (1987) Use of ivermectin in treatment of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Toxocara cati infection in a cat. J Am Vet Med Assoc 190:1309–1310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Knaus M, Chester ST, Rosentel J, Kuhnert A, Rehbein S (2014) Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against larval and adult stages of the cat lungworm, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. Vet Parasitol 202:64–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Norsworthy GD (2011) Lung parasites. In: Norsworthy GD, Grace SF, Crystal MA, Tilley LP (eds) The feline patient. 4th edn. John Wiley & Sons, eBook, chapter 129Google Scholar
  19. Otranto D, Brianti E, Dantas-Torres F (2013) Troglostrongylus brevior and a nonexistent ‘dilemma’. Trends Parasitol 29:517–518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Payo-Puente P, Botelho-Dinis M, Carvaja Uruena AM, Payo-Puente M, Gonzalo-Orden JM, Rojo-Vazquez FA (2008) Prevalence study of the lungworm Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in stray cats of Portugal. J Feline Med Surg 10:242–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Reinhardt S, Ottenjann M, Schunack B, Kohn B (2004) Lungenwurmbefall (Aelurostrongylus abstrusus) bei einer Katze. Kleintierpraxis 49:239–246Google Scholar
  22. Roberson EL, Burke TM (1980) Evaluation of granulated fenbendazole (22.2 %) against induced and naturally occurring helminth infections in cats. Am J Vet Res 41:1499–1502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Schmid K, Duewel D (1990) Use of fenbendazole (Panacur® tablets ad. us. vet.) against helminth infections in cats. Tieraerztl Umsch 45:873–875Google Scholar
  24. Schnyder M, Di Cesare A, Basso W, Guscetti F, Riond B, Glaus T, Crisi P, Deplazes P (2014) Clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in cats experimentally infected with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. Parasitol Res 113:1425–1433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Scott DW (1973) Current knowledge of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in the cat. Cornell Vet 63:483–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Traversa D, Di Cesare A (2013) Feline lungworms: what a dilemma. Trends Parasitol 29:423–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Traversa D, Di Cesare A, Conboy G (2010) Canine and feline cardiopulmonary parasitic nematodes in Europe: emerging and underestimated. Parasit Vectors 3:62. doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-3-62 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Traversa D, Di Cesare A, Milillo P, Lohr B, Iorio R, Pampurini F, Schaper R, Paoletti B, Heine J (2009a) Efficacy and safety of imidacloprid 10 % / moxidectin 1 % spot-on formulation in the treatment of feline aelurostrongylosis. Parasitol Res 105(Suppl 1):S55–S62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Traversa D, Milillo P, Di Cesare A, Lohr B, Iorio R, Pampurini F, Schaper R, Bartolini R, Heine J (2009b) Efficacy and safety of emodepside 2.1 % / praziquantel 8.6 % spot-on formulation in the treatment of feline aelurostrongylosis. Parasitol Res 105(Suppl 1):S83–S89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Traversa D, Lia RP, Iorio R, Boari A, Paradies P, Capelli G, Avolio S, Otranto D (2008) Diagnosis and risk factors of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Nematoda, Strongylida) infection in cats from Italy. Vet Parasitol 153:182–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. VICH Guideline 7: Efficacy of Anthelmintics: General Requirements. Veterinary International Cooperation on Harmonization, European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products, London, CVMP/VICH/832/99-corr, November 2000Google Scholar
  32. VICH Guideline 9: Good Clinical Practice. Veterinary International Cooperation on Harmonization, European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products, London, CVMP/VICH/595/98-Final, June 2000Google Scholar
  33. VICH Guideline 20: Efficacy of Anthelmintics: Specific Recommendations for Felines. Veterinary International Cooperation on Harmonization, European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products, London, CVMP/VICH/545/00-Final, June 2001Google Scholar
  34. Vig MM, Murray PA (1986) Successful tretment of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus with fenbendazole. Comp Cont Educ Pract Vet 8:214–222Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claudia Böhm
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sonja Wolken
    • 2
  • Manuela Schnyder
    • 3
  • Walter Basso
    • 3
  • Peter Deplazes
    • 3
  • Angela Di Cesare
    • 4
  • Katrin Deuster
    • 1
  • Roland Schaper
    • 1
  1. 1.Bayer Animal Health GmbHLeverkusenGermany
  2. 2.WolkenkonzeptBurgdorfGermany
  3. 3.Institute of ParasitologyUniversity of ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  4. 4.Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of TeramoTeramoItaly

Personalised recommendations