Advertisement

Parasitology Research

, Volume 114, Supplement 1, pp 19–54 | Cite as

Tick-borne Diseases (Borreliosis, Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis) in German and Austrian Dogs: Status quo and Review of Distribution, Transmission, Clinical Findings, Diagnostics and Prophylaxis

  • Nikola Pantchev
  • Silvia Pluta
  • Elke Huisinga
  • Stephanie Nather
  • Miriam Scheufelen
  • Majda Globokar Vrhovec
  • Andrea Schweinitz
  • Herwig Hampel
  • Reinhard K. Straubinger
Open Access
Original Article

Abstract

Tick-borne diseases (TBD) in dogs have gained in significance in German and Austrian veterinary practices. The widespread European tick species Ixodes ricinus represents an important vector for spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group and Rickettsiales such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The meadow or ornate dog tick (Dermacentor reticulatus) is an important vector for Babesia canis, as is the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) for Babesia vogeli in the Mediterranean region. The present work covers pathogen transmission by tick vectors, including the mechanisms and the minimum intervals required, in conjunction with possible non-vector-borne transmission routes. It also addresses the incubation periods, pathogenicity and clinical findings associated with each pathogen and genospecies and presents case examples. Current data on prevalence, annual fluctuations and distribution in various pre-selected dog populations (symptomatic versus asymptomatic) in both countries are depicted in maps. Reasons for changes in prevalence (especially of Borrelia) are discussed. Criteria and algorithms for clinical diagnosis and monitoring in dogs, including case history, direct detection (blood smears, molecular detection by species-specific PCR and sequencing) and indirect methods (whole-cell and peptide-based antibody tests), are presented, together with laboratory abnormalities (haematology, clinical chemistry, urine). The role of anti-C6 antibody concentration (ACAC) and its correlation with proteinuria and Lyme nephritis are assessed on the basis of new data. Consideration is also given to the importance of blood smears, PCR and serology in the case of anaplasmosis and babesiosis, and the diagnostic value of combining these methods. The relevance of molecular differentiation of Anaplasma species (A. phagocytophilum versus A. platys) and Babesia spp. (large versus small forms) in cases of serological cross-reaction is emphasized. A summary is given of methods for prophylaxis using acaricide products (collars, spot-on solutions and oral treatments in both countries), vaccination (Borrelia and Babesia vaccines) and imidocarb-based chemoprophylaxis for large Babesia.

Keywords

Canis Lyme Disease Babesia Borrelia Burgdorferi Lyme Borreliosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Adaszek Ł, Banach T, Bartnicki M, Winiarczyk D, Łyp P, Winiarczyk S (2014) Application the mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF technique for detection of Babesia canis canis infection in dogs. Parasitol Res 113(11):4293–4295PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Agudelo C, Schanilec P, Kybicova K, Kohout P (2011) Cardiac manifestations of borreliosis in a dog: a case report. Vet Medicina 56(2):85–92Google Scholar
  3. Annen K, Friedman K, Eshoa C, Horowitz M, Gottschall J, Straus T (2012) Two cases of transfusion-transmitted Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Am J Clin Pathol 137(4):562–565PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Appel MJ, Allan S, Jacobson RH, Lauderdale TL, Chang YF, Shin SJ, Thomford JW, Todhunter RJ, Summers BA (1993) Experimental Lyme disease in dogs produces arthritis and persistent infection. J Infect Dis 167(3):651–664PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ayoob AL, Hackner SG, Prittie J (2010) Clinical management of canine babesiosis. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 20(1):77–89Google Scholar
  6. Babes V (1888) Sur l’hemoglobinurie bacterienne du boeuf. C.R. Acad. Sci., Ser. III Sci. vie 107, 692–694Google Scholar
  7. Baneth G (2013) Pathophysiology and treatment of Babesiosis. Emergence of new piroplasms / diseases in dogs and cats. Proceedings of the International SCIVAC Congress “Canine Leishmaniosis and Other Vector-Borne Diseases: Our Current State of Knowledge”, March 8th-10th, Pisa, Italy, 28 – 33Google Scholar
  8. Baneth G, Florin-Christensen M, Cardoso L, Schnittger L (2015) Reclassification of Theileria annae as Babesia vulpes sp. nov. Parasit Vectors 8(1):207PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Barutzki D, Reule M, Scheunemann R, Heile C, Schein E (2007) Die Babesiose des Hundes. Dt Tierarztebl 55:284–293Google Scholar
  10. Beck R, Vojta L, Mrljak V, Marinculić A, Beck A, Zivicnjak T, Caccio SM (2009) Diversity of Babesia and Theileria species in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs in Croatia. Int J Parasitol 39(7):843–848PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Beall MJ, Chandrashekar R, Eberts MD, Cyr KE, Diniz PP, Mainville C, Hegarty BC, Crawford JM, Breitschwerdt EB (2008) Serological and molecular prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Ehrlichia species in dogs from Minnesota. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 8:455–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Belton D (2003) Import risk analysis: Babesia gibsoni in dogs (Canis familiaris) and dog semen. Biosecurity Authority, MAF, Wellington, 19 pp Google Scholar
  13. Berzina I, Krudewig C, Silaghi C, Matise I, Ranka R, Muller N, Welle M (2014) Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA amplified from lesional skin of seropositive dogs. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 5(3):329–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Beugnet F, Halos L, Larsen D, Labuschagne M, Erasmus H, Fourie J (2014) The ability of an oral formulation of afoxolaner to block the transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs. Parasit Vectors 7:283PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Birkenheuer AJ, Levy MG, Breitschwerdt EB (2003) Development and evaluation of a seminested PCR for detection and differentiation of Babesia gibsoni (Asian genotype) and B. canis DNA in canine blood samples. J Clin Microbiol 41(9):4172–4177PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Birkenheuer AJ (2012) Babesiosis. In: Infectious diseases of the dog and cat. 4th edition, edited by Greene CE, Elsevier 771 – 784Google Scholar
  17. Blagburn BL, Spencer JA, Butler JM, Land TM, Billeter SA, Dykstra CC, Stafford KC, Pough MB, Levy SA, Endrizzi M, Hostetler J (2005) Prevention of transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum from ticks to dogs using K9 Advantix and Frontline Plus applied 25 days before exposure to infected ticks. Intern J Appl Res Vet Med 3:69–75Google Scholar
  18. Boland LA, Angles JM (2010) Feline permethrin toxicity: retrospective study of 42 cases. J Feline Med Surg 12(2):61–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Boozer L, Macintire D (2005) Babesia gibsoni: An Emerging Pathogen in Dogs. Compendium 27(1):33–41Google Scholar
  20. Brandao LP, Hagiwara MK, Myiashiro SI (2003) Humoral immunity and reinfection resistance in dogs experimentally inoculated with Babesia canis and either treated or untreated with imidocarb dipropionate. Vet Parasitol 114(4):253–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Brianti E, Otranto D, Dantas-Torres F, Weigl S, Latrofa MS, Gaglio G, Napoli E, Brucato G, Cauquil L, Giannetto S, Bain O (2012) Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Ixodida, Ixodidae) as intermediate host of a canine neglected filarial species with dermal microfilariae. Vet Parasitol 183(3 – 4):330–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Brisson D, Drecktrah D, Eggers CH, Samuels DS (2012) Genetics of Borrelia burgdorferi. Annu Rev Genet 46:515–536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bykowski T, Babb K, von Lackum K, Riley SP, Norris SJ, Stevenson B (2006) Transcriptional regulation of the Borrelia burgdorferi antigenically variable VlsE surface protein. J Bacteriol 188(13):4879–4889PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Carrade DD, Foley JE, Borjesson DL, Sykes JE (2009) Canine granulocytic anaplasmosis: a review. J Vet Intern Med 23(6):1129–1141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Carret C, Walas F, Carcy B, Grande N, Precigout E, Moubri K, Schetters TP, Gorenflot A (1999) Babesia canis canis, Babesia canis vogeli, Babesia canis rossi: differentiation of the three subspecies by a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis on amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes. J Eukaryot Microbiol 46(3):298–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Center SA, Wilkinson E, Smith CA, Erb H, Lewis RM (1985) 24-Hour urine protein/creatinine ratio in dogs with protein-losing nephropathies. J Am Vet Med Assoc 187(8):820–824PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Chandrashekar R, Mainville CA, Beall MJ, O’Connor T, Eberts MD, Alleman AR, Gaunt SD, Breitschwerdt EB (2010) Performance of a commercially available in-clinic ELISA for the detection of antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis antigen in dogs. Am J Vet Res 71(12):1443–1450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Chang YF, Straubinger RK, Jacobson RH, Kim JB, Kim TJ, Kim D, Shin SJ, Appel MJG (1996) Dissemination of Borrelia burgdorferi after experimental infection in dogs. J Spirochetal Tick-Borne Dis 3:80–86Google Scholar
  29. Chauvin A, Moreau E, Bonnet S, Plantard O, Malandrin L (2009) Babesia and its hosts: adaptation to long-lasting interactions as a way to achieve efficient transmission. Vet Res 40(2):37PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Chou J, Wunschmann A, Hodzic E, Borjesson DL (2006) Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in tissues from dogs with presumptive Lyme borreliosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 229(8):1260–1265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Crippa M, Rais O, Gern L (2002) Investigations on the mode and dynamics of transmission and infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu strictu and Borrelia afzelii in Ixodes ricinus ticks. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2:3–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Dambach DM, Smith CA, Lewis RM, Van Winkle TJ (1997) Morphologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural characterization of a distinctive renal lesion in dogs putatively associated with Borrelia burgdorferi infection: 49 cases (1987 – 1992). Vet Pathol 34(2):85–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Dantas-Torres F, Otranto D (2014a) Further thoughts on the taxonomy and vector role of Rhipicephalus sanguineus group ticks. Vet Parasitol pii: S0304 – 4017(14)00648 – 7. doi:  10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.12.014
  34. Dantas-Torres F, Otranto D (2014b) When is an “asymptomatic” dog asymptomatic? Vet Parasitol 202(3 – 4):341–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. de la Fuente J, Estrada-Pena A, Venzal JM, Kocan KM, Sonenshine DE (2008) Overview: Ticks as vectors of pathogens that cause disease in humans and animals. Front Biosci 13:6938–6946PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Demeter Z, Palade EA, Balogh E, Jakab C, Farkas R, Tanczos B, Hornok S (2011) Postmortem small babesia-like morphology of Babesia canis – short communication. Acta Vet Hung 59(4):427–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Deplazes P, Staebler S, Gottstein B (2006) [Travel medicine of parasitic diseases in the dog]. Reisemedizin parasitarer Erkrankungen des Hundes. Schweiz Arch Tierheilk 148: 447 – 461, in GermanGoogle Scholar
  38. Deplazes P, Eckert J, von Samson-Himmelstjerna G, Zahner H (2013) [Textbook of Parasitology for the Veterinary Medicine]. Lehrbuch der Parasitologie fur die Tiermedizin, Enke Verlag, 3th edition, 639 pp, in GermanGoogle Scholar
  39. Dhand A, Nadelman RB, Aguero-Rosenfeld M, Haddad FA, Stokes DP, Horowitz HW (2007) Human granulocytic anaplasmosis during pregnancy: case series and literature review. Clin Infect Dis 45(5):589–593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Diniz PP, Wood M, Maggi RG, Sontakke S, Stepnik M, Breitschwerdt EB (2009) Co-isolation of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii from blood, joint and subcutaneous seroma fluids from two naturally infected dogs. Vet Microbiol 138(3 – 4):368–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Diniz PP, Schulz BS, Hartmann K, Breitschwerdt EB (2011) “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis” infection in a dog from Germany. J Clin Microbiol 49(5):2059–2062PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Diniz PP, Breitschwerdt EB (2012) Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection (canine granulocytotropic anaplasmosis). In: Infectious diseases of the dog and cat. 4th edition, edited by Greene CE, Elsevier 244 – 254Google Scholar
  43. Dixit P, Dixit AK, Varshney JP (2010) Evidence of new pathogenic Theileria species in dogs. J Parasit Dis 34(1):29–32PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Dongus H, Zahler M, Gothe R (1996) [The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Ixodidae), in Germany: an epidemiologic study and control measures]. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 109(6 – 7):245 – 248, in GermanGoogle Scholar
  45. Dumler JS, Barbet AF, Bekker CP, Dasch GA, Palmer GH, Ray SC, Rikihisa Y, Rurangirwa FR (2001) Reorganization of genera in the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales: unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, descriptions of six new species combinations and designation of Ehrlichia equi and ‘HGE agent’ as subjective synonyms of Ehrlichia phagocytophila. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51(6):2145–2165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Duscher G, Fuehrer HP, Kubber-Heiss A (2014) Fox on the run - molecular surveillance of fox blood and tissue for the occurrence of tick-borne pathogens in Austria. Parasit Vectors 7(1):521PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Dyachenko V, Pantchev N, Balzer HJ, Meyersen A, Straubinger RK (2012) First case of Anaplasma platys infection in a dog from Croatia. Parasit Vectors 5:49PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Egenvall AE, Hedhammar AA, Bjoersdorff AI (1997) Clinical features and serology of 14 dogs affected by granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Sweden. Vet Rec 140(9):222–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Eichenberger RM, Deplazes P, Mathis A (2015): Ticks on dogs and cats: A pet owner-based survey in a rural town in northeastern Switzerland. Ticks Tick Borne Dis pii: S1877 – 959X(15)00023 – 0. doi:  10.1016/j.ttbdis.2015.01.007 [Epub ahead of print]
  50. Eiras DF, Craviotto MB, Baneth G, More G (2014) First report of Rangelia vitalii infection (canine rangeliosis) in Argentina. Parasitol Int 63(5):729–734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Embers ME, Jacobs MB, Johnson BJ, Philipp MT (2007) Dominant epitopes of the C6 diagnostic peptide of Borrelia burgdorferi are largely inaccessible to antibody on the parent VlsE molecule. Clin Vaccine Immunol 14(8):931–936PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Embers ME, Barthold SW, Borda JT, Bowers L, Doyle L, Hodzic E, Jacobs MB, Hasenkampf NR, Martin DS, Narasimhan S, Phillippi-Falkenstein KM, Purcell JE, Ratterree MS, Philipp MT (2012) Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in rhesus macaques following antibiotic treatment of disseminated infection. PLoS One 7(1), e29914PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Falkeno U, Tasker S, Osterman-Lind E, Tvedten HW (2013) Theileria annae in a young Swedish dog. Acta Vet Scand 55:50PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Farkas R, Takacs N, Hornyak A, Nachum-Biala Y, Hornok S, Baneth G (2015) First report on Babesia cf. microti infection of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Hungary. Parasit Vectors 8(1):55PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Gallusova M, Qablan MA, D’Amico G, Obornik M, Petrželkova KJ, Mihalca AD, Modry D (2014) Piroplasms in feral and domestic equines in rural areas of the Danube Delta, Romania, with survey of dogs as a possible reservoir. Vet Parasitol 206(3 – 4):287–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Gaunt S, Beall M, Stillman B, Lorentzen L, Diniz P, Chandrashekar R, Breitschwerdt E (2010) Experimental infection and co-infection of dogs with Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis: hematologic, serologic and molecular findings. Parasit Vectors 3(1):33PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Gauthier DT, Mansfield LS (1999) Western immunoblot analysis for distinguishing vaccination and infection status with Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease) in dogs. J Vet Diagn Invest 11(3):259–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Globokar Vrhovec M (2013) Retrospektive Analyse der parasitologischen Untersuchungs-ergebnisse eines privaten Untersuchungslabors: Intestinale, respiratorische und vektorubertragene Parasitosen bei Hunden und Katzen in Deutschland (2004–2006). Inaugural-Dissertation, Justus-Liebig-Universitat Giessen, 276 pp, in GermanGoogle Scholar
  59. Goldstein RE, Atwater DZ (2006) Evaluation of serology and circulating immune complexes in dogs naturally infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. Proceedings of the 24th ACVIM Forum 2006; [abstract #12]; 732Google Scholar
  60. Goldstein RE, Cordner AP, Sandler JL, Bellohusen BA, Erb HN (2007) Microalbuminuria and comparison of serologic testing for exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi in nonclinical Labrador and Golden Retrievers. J Vet Diagn Invest 19(3):294–297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Goldstein RE, Brovida C, Fernandez-Del Palacio MJ, Littman MP, Polzin DJ, Zatelli A, Cowgill LD (2013) Consensus recommendations for treatment for dogs with serology positive glomerular disease. IRIS Glomerular Disease Study Group. J Vet Intern Med 27(Suppl 1):S60–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Greene CE, Straubinger RK, Levy SA (2012) Borreliosis. In: Infectious diseases of the dog and cat. 4th edition, edited by Greene CE, Elsevier 447 – 465Google Scholar
  63. Greig B, Asanovich KM, Armstrong PJ, Dumler JS (1996) Geographic, clinical, serologic, and molecular evidence of granulocytic ehrlichiosis, a likely zoonotic disease, in Minnesota and Wisconsin dogs. J Clin Microbiol 34(1):44–48PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Halos L, Baneth G, Beugnet F, Bowman AS, Chomel B, Farkas R, Franc M, Guillot J, Inokuma H, Kaufman R, Jongejan F, Joachim A, Otranto D, Pfister K, Pollmeier M, Sainz A, Wall R (2012) Defining the concept of “tick repellency” in veterinary medicine. Parasitology 139(4):419–423PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Hanincova K, Mukherjee P, Ogden NH, Margos G, Wormser GP, Reed KD, Meece JK, Vandermause MF, Schwartz I (2013) Multilocus sequence typing of Borrelia burgdorferi suggests existence of lineages with differential pathogenic properties in humans. PLoS One 8(9), e73066PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Harrus S, Waner T (2011) Diagnosis of canine monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis): an overview. Vet J 187(3):292–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Harrus S, Waner T, Neer TM (2012) Ehrlichia canis infection. In: Infectious diseases of the dog and cat. 4th edition, edited by Greene CE, Elsevier 227 – 238Google Scholar
  68. Hebert D, Eschner A (2010) Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi-specific C6 antibody in dogs before and after implementation of a nonadjuvanted recombinant outer surface protein A vaccine in a Rhode Island small animal clinic. Vet Ther 11(3):E1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Heile C, Heydorn AO, Schein E (2006) [Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794)-distribution, biology and vector for Babesia canis in Germany]. Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) – Verbreitung, Biologie und Vektor von Babesia canis in Deutschland. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 119(7 – 8):330 – 34, in GermanGoogle Scholar
  70. Heile C, Schein E (2007) Kurzeste Ubertragungszeiten von Babesia canis canis durch Dermacentor reticulatus. Vet-MedReport, Sonderausgabe V5, Volume 31, Berlin, May, p. 2Google Scholar
  71. Henniger T, Henniger P, Grossmann T, Distl O, Ganter M, von Loewenich FD (2013) Congenital infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in a calf in northern Germany. Acta Vet Scand 55:3Google Scholar
  72. Herzberger P, Siegel C, Skerka C, Fingerle V, Schulte-Spechtel U, van Dam A, Wilske B, Brade V, Zipfel PF, Wallich R, Kraiczy P (2007) Human pathogenic Borrelia spielmanii sp. nov. resists complement-mediated killing by direct binding of immune regulators factor H and factor H-like protein 1. Infect Immun 75(10):4817–4825PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Hirsch M, Pantchev N (2008) [Occurrence of travel diseases leishmaniasis, ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, and dirofilariosis in dogs living in Germany]. Vorkommenshaufigkeit der Reisekrankheiten Leishmaniose, Ehrlichiose, Babesiose und Dirofilariose bei in Deutschland lebenden Hunden. Kleintierpraxis 53:154–165, in GermanGoogle Scholar
  74. Horney BS, Stojanovic V (2013) Protein-losing nephropathy associated with Borrelia burgdorferi seropositivity in a soft-coated wheaten terrier: response to therapy. Can Vet J 54(4):392–396PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Horowitz HW, Kilchevsky E, Haber S, Aguero-Rosenfeld M, Kranwinkel R, James EK, Wong SJ, Chu F, Liveris D, Schwartz I (1998) Perinatal transmission of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. N Engl J Med 339(6):375–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Horst H (Ed.) (2003) [Tick borreliosis Lyme disease in humans and animals]. Zeckenborreliose Lyme-Krankheit bei Mensch und Tier. Spitta Verlag, 4th edition; 224 pp, in GermanGoogle Scholar
  77. Hovius JW, Hovius KE, Oei A, Houwers DJ, van Dam AP (2000) Antibodies against specific proteins of and immobilizing activity against three strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato can be found in symptomatic but not in infected asymptomatic dogs. J Clin Microbiol 38(7):2611–2621PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Hovius JW, Li X, Ramamoorthi N, van Dam AP, Barthold SW, van der Poll T, Speelman P, Fikrig E (2007) Coinfection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia garinii alters the course of murine Lyme borreliosis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 49(2):224–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Hovius KE (2013): Canine borreliosis. In: Guide to vector borne diseases of pets. 1th edition, edited by Beugnet F, Merial 218 – 230Google Scholar
  80. Huhn C, Winter C, Wolfsperger T, Wuppenhorst N, Strašek Smrdel K, Skuballa J, Pfaffle M, Petney T, Silaghi C, Dyachenko V, Pantchev N, Straubinger RK, Schaarschmidt-Kiener D, Ganter M, Aardema ML, von Loewenich FD (2014) Analysis of the population structure of Anaplasma phagocytophilum using multilocus sequence typing. PLoS One 9(4), e93725PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Ionita M, Mitrea IL, Pfister K, Hamel D, Silaghi C (2013) Molecular evidence for bacterial and protozoan pathogens in hard ticks from Romania. Vet Parasitol 196(1 – 2):71–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Irwin PJ (2009) Canine babesiosis: from molecular taxonomy to control. Parasit Vectors 2(Suppl 1):S4PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Jaderlund KH, Egenvall A, Bergstrom K, Hedhammar A (2007) Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dogs with neurological signs. Vet Rec 160(24):825–831PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Jaderlund KH, Bergstrom K, Egenvall A, Hedhammar A (2009) Cerebrospinal fluid PCR and antibody concentrations against Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in dogs with neurological signs. J Vet Intern Med 23(3):669–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Janus I, Noszczyk-Nowak A, Nowak M, Cepiel A, Ciaputa R, Pasławska U, Dzięgiel P, Jabłońska K (2014) Myocarditis in dogs: etiology, clinical and histopathological features (11 cases: 2007–2013). Ir Vet J 67(1):28PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Jongejan F, Fourie JJ, Chester ST, Manavella C, Mallouk Y, Pollmeier MG, Baggott D (2011) The prevention of transmission of Babesia canis canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs using a novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene. Vet Parasitol 179(4):343–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Kahl O, Janetzki-Mittmann C, Gray JS, Jonas R, Stein J, de Boer R (1998) Risk of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato for a host in relation to the duration of nymphal Ixodes ricinus feeding and the method of tick removal. Zentralbl Bakteriol 287(1 – 2):41–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Kenedy MR, Lenhart TR, Akins DR (2012) The role of Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface proteins. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 66(1):1–19PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Kjelgaard-Hansen M, Jensen AL, Houser GA, Jessen LR, Kristensen AT (2006) Use of serum C-reactive protein as an early marker of inflammatory activity in canine type II immune-mediated polyarthritis: case report. Acta Vet Scand 48:9PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Kohn B, Galke D, Beelitz P, Pfister K (2008) Clinical features of canine granulocytic anaplasmosis in 18 naturally infected dogs. J Vet Intern Med 22(6):1289–1295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Kramer F, Schaper R, Schunack B, Połozowski A, Piekarska J, Szwedko A, Jodies R, Kowalska D, Schupbach D, Pantchev N (2014) Serological detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis antibodies and Dirofilaria immitis antigen in a countrywide survey in dogs in Poland. Parasitol Res 113(9):3229–3239PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Krimer PM, Miller AD, Li Q, Grosenbaugh DA, Susta L, Schatzberg SJ (2011) Molecular and pathological investigations of the central nervous system in Borrelia burgdorferiinfected dogs. J Vet Diagn Invest 23(4):757–763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Krucken J, Schreiber C, Maaz D, Kohn M, Demeler J, Beck S, Schein E, Olias P, Richter D, Matuschka FR, Pachnicke S, Krieger K, Kohn B, von Samson-Himmelstjerna G (2013) A novel high-resolution melt PCR assay discriminates Anaplasma phagocytophilum and “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis”. J Clin Microbiol 51(6):1958–1961PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Krupka I, Pantchev N, Weise M, Straubinger RK (2007) [Tick-transmitted, bacterial infections in dogs: Seroprevalences of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis in Germany]. Durch Zecken ubertragbare bakterielle Infektionen bei Hunden: Seropravalenzen von Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato und Ehrlichia canis in Deutschland. Praktischer Tierarzt 10(88):776 – 787, in GermanGoogle Scholar
  95. Krupka I, Straubinger RK (2010) Lyme borreliosis in dogs and cats: background, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of infections with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 40(6):1103–1119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Kurzova Z, Kodym P, Balatova P, Berenova D, Hořejši J, Picha D (2014) Are serological tests capable of discriminating between different borrelia species? Proceedings of the V4 Parasitological Meeting “Parasites in the Heart of Europe”, May 25th–30th, Stara Lesna, Slovakia, 93 – 94Google Scholar
  97. Leschnik MW, Kirtz G, Khanakah G, Duscher G, Leidinger E, Thalhammer JG, Joachim A, Stanek G (2010) Humoral immune response in dogs naturally infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and in dogs after immunization with a Borrelia vaccine. Clin Vaccine Immunol 17(5):828–835PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Leschnik M (2014) Canine borreliosis: are we facing the facts? Vet J 199(2):197–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Levy SA, Magnarelli LA (1992) Relationship between development of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs and the subsequent development of limb/joint borreliosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 200(3):344–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Levy SA, O’Connor TP, Hanscom JL, Shields P, Lorentzen L, Dimarco AA (2008) Quantitative measurement of C6 antibody following antibiotic treatment of Borrelia burgdorferi antibody-positive nonclinical dogs. Clin Vaccine Immunol 15(1):115–119PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Liang FT, Steere AC, Marques AR, Johnson BJ, Miller JN, Philipp MT (1999a) Sensitive and specific serodiagnosis of Lyme disease by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with a peptide based on an immunodominant conserved region of Borrelia burgdorferi VlsE. J Clin Microbiol 37(12):3990–3996PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Liang FT, Alvarez AL, Gu Y, Nowling JM, Ramamoorthy R, Philipp MT (1999b) An immunodominant conserved region within the variable domain of VlsE, the variable surface antigen of Borrelia burgdorferi. J Immunol 163(10):5566–5573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Liang FT, Aberer E, Cinco M, Gern L, Hu CM, Lobet YN, Ruscio M, Voet PE Jr, Weynants VE, Philipp MT (2000a) Antigenic conservation of an immunodominant invariable region of the VlsE lipoprotein among European pathogenic genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi SL. J Infect Dis 182(5):1455–1462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Liang FT, Jacobson RH, Straubinger RK, Grooters A, Philipp MT (2000b) Characterization of a Borrelia burgdorferi VlsE invariable region useful in canine Lyme disease serodiagnosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Microbiol 38(11):4160–4166PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Liebisch A, Liebisch G (2003a) [Tick borreliosis in domestic animals]. Zeckenborreliose bei Haustieren. In [Tick borreliosis Lyme disease in humans and animals]. Zeckenborreliose Lyme-Krankheit bei Mensch und Tier. 4th edition. Edited by Horst H. Spitta Verlag; 194 – 241, in GermanGoogle Scholar
  106. Liebisch A, Liebisch G (2003b) [Biology and ecology of ticks]. Biologie und Okologie der Zecken. In: [Tick borreliosis Lyme disease in humans and animals]. Zeckenborreliose Lyme-Krankheit bei Mensch und Tier. 4th edition, edited by Horst H, Spitta Verlag 32 – 49, in GermanGoogle Scholar
  107. Lin T, Gao L, Edmondson DG, Jacobs MB, Philipp MT, Norris SJ (2009) Central role of the Holliday junction helicase RuvAB in VlsE recombination and infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi. PLoS Pathog 5(12), e1000679PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Littman MP, Goldstein RE, Labato MA, Lappin MR, Moore GE (2006) ACVIM small animal consensus statement on Lyme disease in dogs: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. J Vet Intern Med 20:422–434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Littman MP (2013) Lyme nephritis. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 23(2):163–173Google Scholar
  110. Margos G, Wilske B, Sing A, Hizo-Teufel C, Cao WC, Chu C, Scholz H, Straubinger RK, Fingerle V (2013) Borrelia bavariensis sp. nov. is widely distributed in Europe and Asia. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63(11):4284–4288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. McKenna P, Clement J, Van Dijck D, Lauwerys M, Carey D, Van den Bogaard T, Bigaignon G (1995) Canine Lyme disease in Belgium. Vet Rec 136(10):244–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Mierzejewska EJ, Welc-Falęciak R, Bednarska M, Rodo A, Bajer A (2014) The first evidence for vertical transmission of Babesia canis in a litter of Central Asian Shepherd dogs. Ann Agric Environ Med 21(3):500–503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Minkus G, Breuer W, Wanke R, Reusch C, Leuterer G, Brem G, Hermanns W (1994) Familial nephropathy in Bernese mountain dogs. Vet Pathol 31(4):421–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Moehrle M, Rassner G (2002) How to remove ticks? Dermatology 204(4):303–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Najm NA, Meyer-Kayser E, Hoffmann L, Herb I, Fensterer V, Pfister K, Silaghi C (2014) A molecular survey of Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and their ticks from Thuringia, Germany. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 5(4):386–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. O’Connor TP, Esty KJ, Hanscom JL, Shields P, Philipp MT (2004) Dogs vaccinated with common Lyme disease vaccines do not respond to IR6, the conserved immunodominant region of the VlsE surface protein of Borrelia burgdorferi. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11(3):458–462PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Ogo NI, Lawal AI, Okubanjo OO, Kamani J, Ajayi OO (2011) Current status of canine babesiosis and the situation in Nigeria: a review. Nigerian Veterinary Journal 32(2):69–78Google Scholar
  118. Olmeda-Garcia AS, Rodriguez-Rodriguez JA, Rojo-Vazquez FA (1993) Experimental transmission of Dipetalonema dracunculoides (Cobbold 1870) by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille 1806). Vet Parasitol 47(3 – 4):339–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Pantchev N, Schaper R, Limousin S, Norden N, Weise M, Lorentzen L (2009) Occurrence of Dirofilaria immitis and tick-borne infections caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis in domestic dogs in France: results of a countrywide serologic survey. Parasitol Res 105(Suppl):S101–S113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Pantchev N (2010a) C-reactive protein as a marker in canine granulocytic anaplasmosis. Vet Rec 166(20):632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Pantchev N (2010b) Canine granulozytare Anaplasmose beim Hund – Teil 2: Diagnostik, Therapie und Prophylaxe. tierarztliches journal reise & medizin 6:32–33Google Scholar
  122. Pantchev N (2012a): Zeckenubertragene Reiseinfektionen beim Hund: Ehrlichiose und Babesiose. veterinarSPIEGEL 4: 162–170Google Scholar
  123. Pantchev N (2012b) Aktuelle Situation und Bedeutung der vektorubertragenen Erkrankungen Borreliose, Anaplasmose und Leishmaniose beim Hund. Kompendium Kleintier 2012:4–10Google Scholar
  124. Pantchev N (2013) Halsband, Spot-on, Tablette und Co. – Wie schutzt man den Hund gegen CVBD? Kompendium Kleintier 2013:14–22Google Scholar
  125. Pantchev N (2014) Understanding the complexity of diagnosis and monitoring of canine Lyme disease. Proceedings of Merial pre-congress symposium, 24th annual congress ECVIM-CA, 03.09.2014, Mainz, 13 – 19Google Scholar
  126. Petney TN, Pfaffle MP, Skuballa JD (2012) An annotated checklist of the ticks (Acari: Ixodida) of Germany. Systematic and Applied Acarology 17(2):115–170Google Scholar
  127. Piana GP, Galli-Valerio B (1895) Su di un infezione del cane con parasiti endoglobulari. Il Moderno Zooiatro 6:163–169Google Scholar
  128. Piesman J, Gern L (2004) Lyme borreliosis in Europe and North America. Parasitology 129(Suppl):S191–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Radolf JD, Caimano MJ (2008) The long strange trip of Borrelia burgdorferi outer-surface protein C. Mol Microbiol 69(1):1–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Rizzoli A, Silaghi C, Obiegala A, Rudolf I, Hubalek Z, Foldvari G, Plantard O, Vayssier-Taussat M, Bonnet S, Spitalska E, Kazimirova M (2014) Ixodes ricinus and its transmitted pathogens in urban and peri-urban areas in Europe: new hazards and relevance for public health. Front Public Health 2:251PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Robisch K (2010) [Tick removal – Comparison of five different tick removal devices]. Tick Removal – Vergleich von funf verschiedenen Zeckenentfernungsgeraten. Diplomarbeit zur Erlangung der Wurde eines Diplomtierarztes der Veterinarmedizinischen Universitat Wien, 67 pp, in GermanGoogle Scholar
  132. Rolla D, Conti N, Ansaldo F, Panaro L, Lusenti T (2013) Post-infectious glomerulonephritis presenting as acute renal failure in a patient with Lyme disease. J Renal Inj Prev 1:17–20Google Scholar
  133. Rollend L, Fish D, Childs JE (2013) Transovarial transmission of Borrelia spirochetes by Ixodes scapularis: a summary of the literature and recent observations. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 4(1 – 2):46–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Rosa CT, Pazzi P, Nagel S, McClure V, Christie J, Troskie M, Dvir E (2014) Theileriosis in six dogs in South Africa and its potential clinical significance. J S Afr Vet Assoc 85(1):1–7Google Scholar
  135. Schaarschmidt D, Gilli U, Gottstein B, Marreros N, Kuhnert P, Daeppen JA, Rosenberg G, Hirt D, Frey CF (2013) Questing Dermacentor reticulatus harbouring Babesia canis DNA associated with outbreaks of canine babesiosis in the Swiss Midlands. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 4(4):334–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Schetters TH, Kleuskens J, Scholtes N, Bos HJ (1995) Strain variation limits protective activity of vaccines based on soluble Babesia canis antigens. Parasite Immunol 17(4):215–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Schetters T (2005) Vaccination against canine babesiosis. Trends Parasitol 21(4):179–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Schreiber C, Krucken J, Beck S, Maaz D, Pachnicke S, Krieger K, Gross M, Kohn B, von Samson-Himmelstjerna G (2014) Pathogens in ticks collected from dogs in Berlin/Brandenburg, Germany. Parasit Vectors 7(1):535PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Scorpio DG, Dumler JS, Barat NC, Cook JA, Barat CE, Stillman BA, DeBisceglie KC, Beall MJ, Chandrashekar R (2011) Comparative strain analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection and clinical outcomes in a canine model of granulocytic anaplasmosis. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 11(3):223–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Simoes PB, Cardoso L, Araujo M, Yisaschar-Mekuzas Y, Baneth G (2011) Babesiosis due to the canine Babesia microtilike small piroplasm in dogs – first report from Portugal and possible vertical transmission. Parasit Vectors 4:50PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Skotarczak B (2014) Why are there several species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato detected in dogs and humans? Infect Genet Evol 23:182–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Štefančikova A, Derdakova M, Škardova I, Szestakova E, Čislakova L, Kovačova D, Stanko M, Peťko B (2008) Some epidemiological and epizootiological aspects of Lyme borreliosis in Slovakia with the emphasis on the problems of serological diagnostics. Biologia 63(6):1135–1142Google Scholar
  143. Straubinger RK, Straubinger AF, Summers BA, Jacobson RH, Erb HN (1998) Clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, and effect of antibiotic treatment on Lyme borreliosis in dogs. Wien Klin Wochenschr 110(24):874–881PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Straubinger RK (2000) PCR-based quantification of Borrelia burgdorferi organisms in canine tissues over a 500-day postinfection period. J Clin Microbiol 38(6):2191–2199PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Straubinger RK, Straubinger AF, Summers BA, Jacobson RH (2000) Status of Borrelia burgdorferi infection after antibiotic treatment and the effects of corticosteroids: an experimental study. J Infect Dis 181(3):1069–1081PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Straubinger RK, Dharma Rao T, Davidson E, Summers BA, Jacobson RH, Frey AB (2002) Protection against tick-transmitted Lyme disease in dogs vaccinated with a multiantigenic vaccine. Vaccine 20(1 – 2):181–193Google Scholar
  147. Straubinger RK, Pantchev N (2010) Die Lyme-Borreliose-Impfung beim Hund – kontrovers diskutiert. kleintierkonkret 5:8–11Google Scholar
  148. Summers BA, Straubinger AF, Jacobson RH, Chang YF, Appel MJ, Straubinger RK (2005) Histopathological studies of experimental Lyme disease in the dog. J Comp Pathol 133(1):1–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Susta L, Uhl EW, Grosenbaugh DA, Krimer PM (2012) Synovial lesions in experimental canine Lyme borreliosis. Vet Pathol 49(3):453–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Tappe J, Jordan D, Janecek E, Fingerle V, Strube C (2014) Revisited: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infections in hard ticks (Ixodes ricinus) in the city of Hanover (Germany). Parasit Vectors 7:441PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Tenter AM, Deplazes P (2006) [Protozoal infections in dog and cat]. Protozoeninfektionen von Hund und Katze. In: [Parasitology for the Veterinary Medicine]. Veterinarmedizinische Parasitologie. 6th edition, edited by Schnieder T, Parey 409 – 444Google Scholar
  152. Tijsse-Klasen E, Hansford KM, Jahfari S, Phipps P, Sprong H, Medlock JM (2013a) Spotted fever group rickettsiae in Dermacentor reticulatus and Haemaphysalis punctata ticks in the UK. Parasit Vectors 6:212PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Tijsse-Klasen E, Pandak N, Hengeveld P, Takumi K, Koopmans MP, Sprong H (2013b) Ability to cause erythema migrans differs between Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates. Parasit Vectors 6:23PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Tilly K, Bestor A, Rosa PA (2013) Lipoprotein succession in Borrelia burgdorferi: similar but distinct roles for OspC and VlsE at different stages of mammalian infection. Mol Microbiol 89(2):216–227PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Topfer K (2005) [Characterization of the humoral immune response in dogs after vaccination against the causative agent of the Lyme Borreliosis, Borrelia burgdorferi, with different vaccines using two different vaccination schedules]. Charakterisierung der humoralen Immunantwort im Hund nach Impfung mit verschiedenen Impfstoffen gegen den Erreger der Lyme-Borreliose, Borrelia burgdorferi, unter Berucksichtigung zweier verschiedener Impfstrategien. Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung des Grades eines Doctor medicinae veterinariae (Dr. med. vet.) durch die Veterinarmedizinische Fakultat der Universitat Leipzig, 115 pp, in GermanGoogle Scholar
  156. Tsao JI (2009) Reviewing molecular adaptations of Lyme borreliosis spirochetes in the context of reproductive fitness in natural transmission cycles. Vet Res 40(2):36PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Uilenberg G, Verdiesen PA, Zwart D (1981) Imidocarb: a chemoprophylactic experiment with Babesia canis. Vet Q 3(3):118–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Uilenberg G, Franssen FF, Perie NM, Spanjer AA (1989) Three groups of Babesia canis distinguished and a proposal for nomenclature. Vet Q 11(1):33–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Wagner B, Freer H, Rollins A, Garcia-Tapia D, Erb HN, Earnhart C, Marconi R, Meeus P (2012) Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi OspA, OspC, OspF, and C6 antigens as markers for early and late infection in dogs. Clin Vaccine Immunol 19(4):527–535PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Wang J, Dyachenko V, Munderloh UG, Straubinger RK (2015) Transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from endothelial cells to peripheral granulocytes in vitro under shear flow conditions. Med Microbiol Immunol [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  161. Wiedemann C, Milward F (1999) [Efficacy and safety studies with a new vaccine against Lyme Borreliosis in dogs (Merilym®)]. Wirksamkeits- und Vertaglichkeitsprufungen mit einem neuen Impfstoff gegen Lyme-Borreliose beim Hund. TA Umschau 54(5):242–249Google Scholar
  162. Wilking H, Fingerle V, Klier C, Thamm M, Stark K (2015) Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato among adults, Germany, 2008–2011. Emerg Infect Dis 21(1):107–110PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Woldehiwet Z (2010) The natural history of Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Vet Parasitol 167(2 – 4):108–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Wolf D, Failing K, Taubert A, Pantchev N (2014) Serological diagnosis of canine leishmaniosis: comparison of three commercially available tests. Parasitol Res 113(5):1997–2002PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Zahler M, Schein E, Rinder H, Gothe R (1998) Characteristic genotypes discriminate between Babesia canis isolates of differing vector specificity and pathogenicity to dogs. Parasitol Res 84(7):544–548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Zahler M, Rinder H, Schein E, Gothe R (2000a) Detection of a new pathogenic Babesia microti-like species in dogs. Vet Parasitol 89(3):241–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Zahler M, Rinder H, Zweygarth E, Fukata T, Maede Y, Schein E, Gothe R (2000b) ‘Babesia gibsoni’ of dogs from North America and Asia belong to different species. Parasitology 120(4):365–369PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nikola Pantchev
    • 1
  • Silvia Pluta
    • 1
  • Elke Huisinga
    • 1
  • Stephanie Nather
    • 1
  • Miriam Scheufelen
    • 1
  • Majda Globokar Vrhovec
    • 1
  • Andrea Schweinitz
    • 1
  • Herwig Hampel
    • 2
  • Reinhard K. Straubinger
    • 3
  1. 1.IDEXX LaboratoriesLudwigsburgGermany
  2. 2.IDEXX LaboratoriesViennaAustria
  3. 3.Bacteriology and Mycology, Institute for Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Department of Veterinary SciencesLMU MunichMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations