Parasitology Research

, Volume 114, Supplement 1, pp 19–54 | Cite as

Tick-borne Diseases (Borreliosis, Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis) in German and Austrian Dogs: Status quo and Review of Distribution, Transmission, Clinical Findings, Diagnostics and Prophylaxis

  • Nikola Pantchev
  • Silvia Pluta
  • Elke Huisinga
  • Stephanie Nather
  • Miriam Scheufelen
  • Majda Globokar Vrhovec
  • Andrea Schweinitz
  • Herwig Hampel
  • Reinhard K. Straubinger
Open Access
Original Article


Tick-borne diseases (TBD) in dogs have gained in significance in German and Austrian veterinary practices. The widespread European tick species Ixodes ricinus represents an important vector for spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group and Rickettsiales such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The meadow or ornate dog tick (Dermacentor reticulatus) is an important vector for Babesia canis, as is the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) for Babesia vogeli in the Mediterranean region. The present work covers pathogen transmission by tick vectors, including the mechanisms and the minimum intervals required, in conjunction with possible non-vector-borne transmission routes. It also addresses the incubation periods, pathogenicity and clinical findings associated with each pathogen and genospecies and presents case examples. Current data on prevalence, annual fluctuations and distribution in various pre-selected dog populations (symptomatic versus asymptomatic) in both countries are depicted in maps. Reasons for changes in prevalence (especially of Borrelia) are discussed. Criteria and algorithms for clinical diagnosis and monitoring in dogs, including case history, direct detection (blood smears, molecular detection by species-specific PCR and sequencing) and indirect methods (whole-cell and peptide-based antibody tests), are presented, together with laboratory abnormalities (haematology, clinical chemistry, urine). The role of anti-C6 antibody concentration (ACAC) and its correlation with proteinuria and Lyme nephritis are assessed on the basis of new data. Consideration is also given to the importance of blood smears, PCR and serology in the case of anaplasmosis and babesiosis, and the diagnostic value of combining these methods. The relevance of molecular differentiation of Anaplasma species (A. phagocytophilum versus A. platys) and Babesia spp. (large versus small forms) in cases of serological cross-reaction is emphasized. A summary is given of methods for prophylaxis using acaricide products (collars, spot-on solutions and oral treatments in both countries), vaccination (Borrelia and Babesia vaccines) and imidocarb-based chemoprophylaxis for large Babesia.


Canis Lyme Disease Babesia Borrelia Burgdorferi Lyme Borreliosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nikola Pantchev
    • 1
  • Silvia Pluta
    • 1
  • Elke Huisinga
    • 1
  • Stephanie Nather
    • 1
  • Miriam Scheufelen
    • 1
  • Majda Globokar Vrhovec
    • 1
  • Andrea Schweinitz
    • 1
  • Herwig Hampel
    • 2
  • Reinhard K. Straubinger
    • 3
  1. 1.IDEXX LaboratoriesLudwigsburgGermany
  2. 2.IDEXX LaboratoriesViennaAustria
  3. 3.Bacteriology and Mycology, Institute for Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Department of Veterinary SciencesLMU MunichMunichGermany

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