Parasitology Research

, Volume 114, Issue 7, pp 2671–2678 | Cite as

The life cycle of Ortholinea auratae (Myxozoa: Ortholineidae) involves an actinospore of the triactinomyxon morphotype infecting a marine oligochaete

  • Luis F. Rangel
  • Sónia Rocha
  • Ricardo Castro
  • Ricardo Severino
  • Graça Casal
  • Carlos Azevedo
  • Francisca Cavaleiro
  • Maria J. Santos
Original Paper


Actinospores released from the marine oligochaete Limnodriloides agnes inhabiting a Southern Portuguese fish farm are molecularly recognized as developmental stages of the life cycle of Ortholinea auratae, a myxosporean parasite that infects the urinary bladder of Sparus aurata. The molecular analysis of the 18S rRNA gene reveals a similarity of 99.9 to 100 % of the actinospores analyzed to the myxospores of O. auratae. The actinospores belong to the triactinomyxon morphotype and occur in groups of eight within pansporocysts that develop in the intestinal epithelium of the oligochaete host. This is the first record of a myxosporean using an oligochaete as its invertebrate host in the marine environment.


Myxozoa Ortholinea auratae Sparus aurata Limnodriloides agnes Life cycle Triactinomyxon Oligochaeta 



This research was partially supported by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) through the COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme and national funds through FCT—Foundation for Science and Technology, under the project “PEst-C/MAR/LA0015/2013” the project DIRDAMyx, reference FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-020726/FCT-PTDC/MAR/116838/2010, and the Ph.D. fellowship grant SFRH/BD/82237/2011 attributed to L. Rangel and the Ph.D. fellowship grant SFRH/BD/92661/2013 attributed to S. Rocha through the programme POPH/FSE QREN; and the project EUCVOA (NORTE-07-0162-FEDER-000116) (Portugal). This work complies with the current laws of the country where it was performed.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luis F. Rangel
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sónia Rocha
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ricardo Castro
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ricardo Severino
    • 2
  • Graça Casal
    • 2
    • 4
  • Carlos Azevedo
    • 2
    • 3
    • 5
  • Francisca Cavaleiro
    • 2
  • Maria J. Santos
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biology, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal
  2. 2.Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR)University of PortoPortoPortugal
  3. 3.Laboratory of Cell Biology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar (ICBAS)University of PortoPortoPortugal
  4. 4.Department of SciencesHigh Institute of Health Sciences-North, CESPUGandraPortugal
  5. 5.Zoology Department, College of SciencesKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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