Parasitology Research

, Volume 114, Issue 7, pp 2629–2637 | Cite as

Assessment of resistance risk to lambda-cyhalothrin and cross-resistance to four other insecticides in the house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae)

  • Naeem Abbas
  • Sarfraz Ali Shad
Original Paper


Lambda-cyhalothrin, a sodium channel modulator insecticide, has been used frequently for the control of house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) worldwide, including Pakistan. This experiment was performed to determine the selection and assessment of lambda-cyhalothrin resistance evolution along with four other insecticides. After 26 generations of selection, the lambda-cyhalothrin-selected population developed 445-fold resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin compared to the susceptible population. There was low cross-resistance to bifenthrin and very low cross-resistance to methomyl, imidacloprid, and fipronil in the lambda-cyhalothrin-selected population compared to the field population (G1). Realized heritability (h 2) of resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, methomyl, imidacloprid, and fipronil was 0.07, 0.05, 0.01, 0.08, and 0.08, respectively. The projected rate of resistance development revealed that if 90 % house flies were selected, then a tenfold increase in lethal concentration 50 occurred after 17, 20, 159, 13, and 14 generations for lambda-cyhalothrin (h 2 = 0.07, slope = 2.09), bifenthrin (h 2 = 0.05, slope = 1.73), methomyl (h 2 = 0.01, slope = 2.52), imidacloprid (h 2 = 0.08, slope = 1.89), and fipronil (h 2 = 0.08, slope = 2.03), respectively. The results of our study concluded that the house fly has the potential to develop multiple insecticide resistances following continued selection pressure with lambda-cyhalothrin. This study will be helpful for assisting the development of resistance management strategies.


House fly Insecticides Resistance evolution Heritability Cross-resistance 



The authors are highly thankful to Dr. Whitworth, Robert J. (Jeff), Associate Professor, Department of Entomology, Kansas State University, USA, for sparing his precious time to check the manuscript for the improvement of English grammar.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.


  1. Abbas N, Khan HAA, Shad SA (2014) Cross-resistance, genetics, and realized heritability of resistance to fipronil in the house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae): a potential vector for disease transmission. Parasitol Res 113:1343–1352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acevedo GR, Zapater M, Toloza AC (2009) Insecticide resistance of house fly, Musca domestica (L.) from Argentina. Parasitol Res 105:489–493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmad M, Sayyed AH, Crickmore N, Saleem MA (2007) Genetics and mechanism of resistance to deltamethrin in a field population of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Pest Manag Sci 63:1002–1010Google Scholar
  4. Barin A, Arabkhazaeli F, Rahbari S, Madani S (2010) The housefly, Musca domestica, as a possible mechanical vector of Newcastle disease virus in the laboratory and field. Med Vet Entomol 24:88–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bell HA, Robinson KA, Weaver RJ (2010) First report of cyromazine resistance in a population of UK house fly (Musca domestica) associated with intensive livestock production. Pest Manage Sci 66:693–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carrière Y (2003) Haplodiploidy, sex, and the evolution of pesticide resistance. J Econ Entomol 96:1626–1640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chavasse D, Shier R, Murphy O, Huttly S, Cousens S, Akhtar T (1999) Impact of fly control on childhood diarrhoea in Pakistan: community-randomised trial. Lancet 353:22–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Falconer DS, Mackay TF, Frankham R (1996) Introduction to quantitative genetics (4th edn). Trends Genet 12:280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Falconer DS, Mackay TFC (1996) Introduction to quantitative genetics, 4th edn. Longman, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Finney D (1971) A statistical treatment of the sigmoid response curve. Probit analysis, 3rd edn. Cambridge University Press, London, p 333Google Scholar
  11. Firkoi MJ, Hayes JL (1990) Quantitative genetic tools for insecticide resistance risk assessment: estimating the heritability of resistance. J Econ Entomol 83:647–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Förster M, Klimpel S, Mehlhorn H, Sievert K, Messler S, Pfeffer K (2007) Pilot study on synanthropic flies (e.g. Musca, Sarcophaga, Calliphora, Fannia, Lucilia, Stomoxys) as vectors of pathogenic microorganisms. Parasitol Res 101:243–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Graczyk TK, Knight R, Gilman RH, Cranfield MR (2001) The role of non-biting flies in the epidemiology of human infectious diseases. Microb Infect 3:231–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jutsum AR, Heaney SP, Perrin BM, Wege PJ (1998) Pesticide resistance: assessment of risk and the development and implementation of effective management strategies. Pestic Sci 54:435–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kaufman PE, Gerry AC, Rutz DA, Scott JG (2006) Monitoring susceptibility of house flies (Musca domestica L.) in the United States to imidacloprid. J Agric Urban Entomol 23:195–200Google Scholar
  16. Kaufman PE, Nunez SC, Geden CJ, Scharf ME (2010) Selection for resistance to imidacloprid in the house fly (Diptera: Muscidae). J Econ Entomol 103:1937–1942PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kavi LA, Kaufman PE, Scott JG (2014) Genetics and mechanisms of imidacloprid resistance in house flies. Pestic Biochem Physiol 109:64–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Khan HAA, Akram W (2014) The effect of temperature on the toxicity of insecticides against Musca domestica L.: implications for the effective management of diarrhea. PLoS One 9:e95636PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Khan HAA, Akram W, Shad SA (2014) Genetics, cross-resistance and mechanism of resistance to spinosad in a field strain of Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Acta Trop 130:148–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lai T, Su J (2011) Assessment of resistance risk in Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to chlorantraniliprole. Pest Manage Sci 67:1468–1472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liu N, Yue X (2000) Insecticide resistance and cross-resistance in the house fly (Diptera: Muscidae). J Econ Entomol 93:1269–1275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Markussen MD, Kristensen M (2010) Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase-mediated neonicotinoid resistance in the house fly Musca domestica L. Pestic Biochem Physiol 98:50–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Markussen MD, Kristensen M (2012) Spinosad resistance in female Musca domestica L. from a field-derived population. Pest Manage Sci 68:75–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mousseau TA, Roff DA (1987) Natural selection and the heritability of fitness components. Heredity 59:181–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nielsen AA, Skovgard H, Stockmarr A, Handberg KJ, Jorgensen PH (2011) Persistence of low-pathogenic avian influenza H5N7 and H7N1 subtypes in house flies (Diptera: Muscidae). J Med Entomol 48:608–614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Otte J, Pfeiffer D, Tiensin T, Price L, Silbergeld E (2007) Highly pathogenic avian influenza risk, biosecurity and smallholder adversity. Livest Res Rural Dev 19:102Google Scholar
  27. Pu X, Yang Y, Wu S, Wu Y (2010) Characterisation of abamectin resistance in a field-evolved multiresistant population of Plutella xylostella. Pest Manage Sci 66:371–378Google Scholar
  28. Rosenheim J (1991) Realized heritability estimation for pesticide resistance traits. Entomol Exp Appl 58:93–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sayyed AH, Attique MNR, Khaliq A, Wright DJ (2005) Inheritance of resistance and cross-resistance to deltamethrin in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from Pakistan. Pest Manage Sci 61:636–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Scott J, Roush R, Liu N (1991) Selection of high-level abamectin resistance from field-collected house flies, Musca domestica. Experientia 47:288–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shi J, Zhang L, Gao X (2011) Characterisation of spinosad resistance in the housefly Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae). Pest Manage Sci 67:335–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shono T, Kasai S, Kamiya E, Kono Y, Scott JG (2002) Genetics and mechanisms of permethrin resistance in the YPER strain of house fly. Pestic Biochem Physiol 73:27–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shono T, Zhang L, Scott JG (2004) Indoxacarb resistance in the house fly, Musca domestica. Pestic Biochem Physiol 80:106–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sial AA, Brunner JF (2010) Assessment of resistance risk in obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to the reduced-risk insecticides chlorantraniliprole and spinetoram. J Econ Entomol 103:1378–1385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Software L (2005) POLO for windows. LeOra Software, PetalumaGoogle Scholar
  36. Tabashnik BE (1992) Resistance risk assessment: realized heritability of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), tobacco budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). J Econ Entomol 85:1551–1559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tabashnik BE, McGaughey WH (1994) Resistance risk assessment for single and multiple insecticides: responses of Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis. J Econ Entomol 87:834–841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tanaka Y, Noppun V (1989) Heritability estimates of phenthoate resistance in the diamond-back moth. Entomol Exp Appl 52:39–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tang JD, Caprio MA, Sheppard DC, Gaydon DM (2002) Genetics and fitness costs of cyromazine resistance in the house fly (Diptera: Muscidae). J Econ Entomol 95:1251–1260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wanaratana S, Panyim S, Pakpinyo S (2011) The potential of house flies to act as a vector of avian influenza subtype H5N1 under experimental conditions. Med Vet Entomol 25:58–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhang L, Shi J, Gao X (2008) Inheritance of beta-cypermethrin resistance in the housefly Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae). Pest Manage Sci 64:185–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agricultural Science and TechnologyBahauddin Zakariya UniversityMultanPakistan

Personalised recommendations