Advertisement

Parasitology Research

, Volume 114, Issue 2, pp 359–377 | Cite as

Helminthes and insects: maladies or therapies

  • Nora L. El-TantawyEmail author
Review

Abstract

By definition, parasites cause harm to their hosts. But, considerable evidence from ancient traditional medicine has supported the theory of using parasites and their products in treating many diseases. Maggots have been used successfully to treat chronic, long-standing, infected wounds which failed to respond to conventional treatment by many beneficial effects on the wound including debridement, disinfection, and healing enhancement. Maggots are also applied in forensic medicine to estimate time between the death and discovery of a corpse and in entomotoxicology involving the potential use of insects as alternative samples for detecting drugs and toxins in death investigations. Leeches are segmented invertebrates, famous by their blood-feeding habits and used in phlebotomy to treat various ailments since ancient times. Leech therapy is experiencing resurgence nowadays in health care principally in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Earthworms provide a source of medicinally useful products with potential antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer properties. Lumbrokinases are a group of fibrinolytic enzymes isolated and purified from earthworms capable of degrading plasminogen-rich and plasminogen-free fibrin and so can be used to treat various conditions associated with thrombotic diseases. Helminth infection has been proved to have therapeutic effects in both animal and human clinical trials with promising evidence in treating many allergic diseases and can block the induction of or reduce the severity of some autoimmune disorders as Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis. What is more, venomous arthropods such as scorpions, bees, wasps, spiders, ants, centipedes, snail, beetles, and caterpillars. The venoms and toxins from these arthropods provide a promising source of natural bioactive compounds which can be employed in the development of new drugs to treat diseases as cancer. The possibility of using these active molecules in biotechnological processes can make these venoms and toxins a valuable and promising source of natural bioactive compounds. The therapeutic use of helminthes and insects will be of great value in biomedicine and further studies on insect toxins will contribute extensively to the development of Biomedical Sciences.

Keywords

Helminthes Insects Maggot Alternative medicine 

References

  1. Abdelgabar AM, Bhowmick BK (2003) The return of the leech. Int J Clin Pract 57(2):103–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams SL (1988) The medicinal leech. A page from the annelids of internal medicine. Ann Intern Med 109:399–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Altman RD, Schultz DR, Collins-Yudiskas B, Aldrich J, Arnold PI, Brown HE (1984) The effects of a partially purified fraction of an ant venom in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 27(3):277–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Alvarez Flores MP, Fritzen M, Reis CV, Chudzinski-Tavassi AM (2006) Losac, a factor X activator from Lonomia obliqua bristle extract: its role in the pathophysiological mechanisms and cell survival. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 343:1216–1223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Amendt J, Campobasso CP, Gaudry E, Reiter C, LeBlanc HN, Hall MJR (2007) Best practice in forensic entomology—standards and guidelines. Int J Legal Med 121:90–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Amendt J, Richards CS, Campobasso CP, Zehner R, Hall MJR (2011) Forensic entomology: applications and limitations. Forensic Sci Med Pathol 7:379–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Andereya S, Stanzel S, Maus U (2008) Assessment of leech therapy for knee osteoarthritis: a randomized study. Acta Orthop 79:235–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Andrade E, Villanova F, Borra P, Leite K, Troncone L, Cortez I, Messina L, Paranhos M, Claro J, Srougi M (2008) Penile erection induced in vivo by a purified toxin from the Brazilian spider Phoneutria nigriventer. BJU Int 102(7):835–837PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Andreu D, Merrifield RB, Steiner H, Boman HG (1985) N-Terminal analogues of cecropin A: synthesis, antibacterial activity, and conformational properties. Biochemistry 24:1683–1688PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Arbiser JL, Kau T, Konar M, Narra K, Ramchandran R, Summers SA, Vlahos CJ, Ye K, Perry BN, Matter W, Fischl A, Cook J, Silver PA, Bain J, Cohen P, Whitmire D, Furness S, Govindarajan B, Bowen JP (2007) Solenopsin, the alkaloidal component of the fire ant (Solenopsis invicta), is a naturally occurring inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling and angiogenesis. Blood 109(2):560–565PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Ardehali B, Hand K, Nduka C, Holmes A, Wood S (2006) Delayed leech-borne infection with Aeromonas hydrophilia in escharotic flap wound. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 59(1):94–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Argiolas A, Pisano JJ (1984) Isolation and characterization of two new peptides, mastoparan C and crabrolin, from the venom of the European hornet, Vespa crabro. J Biol Chem 259:10106–10111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Armstrong DG, Salas P, Short B, Martin BR, Kimbriel HR, Nixon BP, Boulton AJ (2005) Maggot therapy in “lower-extremity hospice” wound care: fewer amputations and more antibiotic-free days. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(3):254–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Arora AS, De Groen PC, Croall DE, Emori Y, Gores GJ (1996) Hepatocellular carcinoma cells resist necrosis during anoxia by preventing phospholipase-mediated calpain activation. J Cell Physiol 167(3):434–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Baer WS (1931) The treatment of chronic osteomyelitis with the maggot (larva of the blowfly). J Bone Jt Surg 13:438–475Google Scholar
  16. Balamurugan M, Parthasarathi K, Cooper EL, Ranganathan LS (2007) Earthworm paste (Lampito mauritii, Kinberg) alters inflammatory, oxidative, haematological and serum biochemical indices of inflamed rat. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 11(2):77–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Balamurugan M, Parthasarathi K, Cooper EL (2009) Anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of earthworm extract-Lampito mauritii (Kinberg). J Ethnopharmacol 121(2):330–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Barbaro KC, Knysak I, Martins R, Hogan C, Winkel K (2005) Enzymatic characterization, antigenic cross-reactivity and neutralization of dermonecrotic activity of five Loxosceles spider venoms of medical importance in the Americas. Toxicon 45:489–499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Barla F, Higashijima H, Funai S, Sugimoto K, Harada N, Yamaji R, Fujita T, Nakano Y, Inui H (2009) Inhibitive effects of alkyl gallates on hyaluronidase and collagenase. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 73:2335–2337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Barnard DR (1977) Skeletal-muscular mechanisms of the larva of Lucilia sericata (Meigen) in relation to feeding habit. Pan-Pac Entomol 53:223–229Google Scholar
  21. Becker S, Terlau H (2008) Toxins from cone snails: properties, applications and biotechnological production. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 79:1–9PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Belokoneva OS, Villegas E, Corzo G, Dai L, Nakajima T (2003) The hemolytic activity of six arachnid cationic peptides is affected by the phosphatidylcholine-to-sphingomyelin ratio in lipid bilayers. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Biomembranes 1617(1–2):22–30Google Scholar
  23. Bexfield A, Nigam Y, Thomas S, Ratcliffe NA (2004) Detection and partial characterisation of two antibacterial factors from the excretions/secretions of the medicinal maggot Lucilia sericata and their activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Microbes Infect 6(14):1297–1304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bingham JP, Mitsunaga E, Bergeron ZL (2010) Drugs from slugs—past, present and future perspectives of omega conotoxin research. Chem Biol Interact 183(1):1–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Boman HG, Faye I, Gudmundsson GH, Lee JY, Lidholm DA (1991) Cell-free immunity in Cecropia. A model system for antibacterial proteins. Eur J Biochem 201:23–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bonn D (2000) Maggot therapy: an alternative for wound infection. Lancet 356(9236):1174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Bonnemain B (2005) Helix and drugs: snail for western health care from antiquity to the present. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2:25–28PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Borges A, Silva S, Op den Camp HJ, Velasco E, Alvarez M, Alfonzo MJ, Jorquera A, De Sousa L, Delgado O (2006) In vitro leishmanicidal activity of Tityus discrepans scorpion venom. Parasitol Res 99:167–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Bourel B, Fleurisse L, HÃdouin V, Cailliez JC, Creusy C, Gosset D, Goff ML (2001) Immunohistochemical contribution to the study of morphine metabolism in calliphoridae larvae and implications in forensic entomotoxicology. J Forensic Sci 46(3):596–599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Bowler PG, Davies BJ (1999) The microbiology of acute and chronic wounds. Wounds 11(4):72–78Google Scholar
  31. Bowling FL, Salgami EV, Boulton AJ (2007) Larval therapy: a novel treatment in eliminating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from diabetic foot ulcers. Diabetes Care 30(2):370–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Broadhurst MJ, Leung JM, Kashyap V, McCune JM, Mahadevan U, McKerrow JH, Loke P (2010) IL-22+ CD4+ T cells are associated with therapeutic Trichuris trichiura infection in an ulcerative colitis patient. Sci Transl Med 2(60):60ra88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Bryson RW, Riddle BR, Graham MR, Smith BT, Prendini L (2013) As old as the hills: montane scorpions in Southwestern North America reveal ancient associations between bioticvdiversification and landscape history. PLoS One 8:e52822PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Bubien JK, Ji HL, Gillespie GY, Fuller CM, Markert JM, Mapstone TB, Benos DJ (2004) Cation selectivity and inhibition of malignant glioma Na+ channels by Psalmotoxin 1. Am J Physiol-Cell Physiol 287(5 56-5):C1282–C1291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Buchman J, Blair JE (1932) Maggots and their use in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis. Surg Gynecol Obstet 55:177–190Google Scholar
  36. Campobasso CP, Di Vella G, Introna F (2001) Factors affecting decomposition and Diptera colonization. Forensic Sci Int 120:18–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Carvalho LML (2010) Toxicology and forensic entomology. In: Amendt J, Campobasso CP, Goff ML, Grassberger M (eds) Current concepts in forensic entomology. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 163–178Google Scholar
  38. Castro HJ, Mendez-Inocencio JI, Omidvar B, Omidvar J, Santilli J, Nielsen HS Jr, Pavot AP, Richert JR, Bellanti JA (2005) A phase I study of the safety of honeybee venom extract as a possible treatment for patients with progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. Allergy Asthma Proc 26(6):470–476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Catts EP (1992) Problems in estimating the post-mortem interval in death investigations. J Agric Entomol 9:245–255Google Scholar
  40. Chaim OM, Trevisan-Silva D, Chaves-Moreira D, Wille ACM, Ferrer VP, Matsubara FH, Mangili OC, da Silveira RB, Gremski LH, Gremski W, Senff-Ribeiro A, Veig SS (2011) Brown spider (Loxosceles genus) venom toxins: tools for biological purposes. Toxins 3:309–344PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Chambers L, Woodrow S, Brown AP, Harris PD, Phillips D, Hall M, Church JCT, Pritchard DI (2003) Degradation of extracellular matrix components by defined proteinases from the green bottle larva Lucilia sericata used for the clinical debridement of non-healing wounds. Br J Dermatol 148(1):14–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Chan SC, Hui L, Chen HM (1998) Enhancement of the cytolytic effect of anti-bacterial cecropin by the microvilli of cancer cells. Anticancer Res 18:4467–4474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Chee KG, Longmate J, Quinn DI, Chatta G, Pinski J, Twardowski P, Pan CX, Cambio A, Evans CP, Gandara DR, Lara PN Jr (2007) The AKT inhibitor perifosine in biochemically recurrent prostate cancer: a phase II California/Pittsburgh cancer consortium trial. Clin Genitourinary Cancer 5(7):433–437Google Scholar
  44. Chen HM, Wang W, Smith D, Chan SC (1997) Effects of the anti-bacterial peptide cecropin B and its analogs, cecropins B-1 and B-2, on liposomes, bacteria, and cancer cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1336:171–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Chen YJ, Shieh CJ, Tsai TH et al (2005) Inhibitory effect of norcantharidin, a derivative compound from blister beetles, on tumor invasion and metastasis in CT26 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Anticancer Drugs 16:293–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Chen CT, Lin JC, Lu TW, Tsai FJ, Huang CY, Yao CH, Chen YS (2010) Earthworm extracts facilitate pc12 cell differentiation and promote axonal sprouting in peripheral nerve injury. Am J Chinese Med 38(3):547–560Google Scholar
  47. Cheng KC, Lee HM, Shum SF, Yip CP (1990) A fatality due to the use of cantharides from Mylabris phalerata as an abortifacient. Med Sci Law 30:336–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Cho BH, Ahn HB (1999) Microsurgical replantation of a partial ear, with leech therapy. Ann Plast Surg 43(4):427–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Cho SY, Shim SR, Rhee HY, Park HJ, Jung WS, Moon SK, Park JM, Ko CN, Cho KH, Park SU (2012) Effectiveness of acupuncture and bee venom acupuncture in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism and Related Disord 18(8):948–952Google Scholar
  50. Chueng WY (1982) Calmodulin: an overview. Fed Proc 41:2253–2257Google Scholar
  51. Conduit R, Sasse A, Hodgson W, Trinder J, Veasey S, Tucker A (2007) A neurotoxinological approach to the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea. Sleep Med Rev 11:361–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Cooke A, Tonks P, Jones FM, O’Shea H, Hutchings P, Fulford AJC, Dunne DW (1999) Infection with Schistosoma mansoni prevents insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in non-obese diabetic mice. Parasite Immunol 21(4):169–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Cooper EL, Ru B, Weng N (2004) Earthworms: sources of antimicrobial and anticancer molecules. Adv Exp Med Biol 546:359–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Cooper PJ, Barreto ML, Rodrigues LC (2006) Human allergy and geohelminth infections: a review of the literature and a proposed conceptual model to guide the investigation of possible causal associations. Br Med Bull 79–80(1):203–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Cooper EL, Balamurugan M, Huang CY, Tsao CR, Heredia J, Tommaseo-Ponzetta M, Paoletti MG (2012) Earthworms dilong: ancient, inexpensive, noncontroversial models may help clarify approaches to integrated medicine emphasizing neuroimmune systems. Evidence-based Complement Altern Med 2012:164152Google Scholar
  56. Croese J, O’neil J, Masson J, Cooke S, Melrose W, Pritchard D, Speare R (2006) A proof of concept study establishing Necator americanus in Crohn’s patients patients and reservoir donors. Gut 55(1):136–137PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. da Silveira RB, Chaim OM, Mangili OC, Gremski W, Dietrich CP, Nader HB, Veiga SS (2007) Hyaluronidases in Loxosceles intermedia (Brown spider) venom are endo-beta-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidases hydrolases. Toxicon 49:758–768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Daeschlein G, Mumcuoglu KY, Assadian O, Hoffmeister B, Kramer A (2007) In vitro antibacterial activity of Lucilia sericata maggot secretions. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 20:112–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Darwish SF, El-Bakly WM, Arafa HM, El-Demerdash E (2013) Targeting TNF-a and NF-kB activation by bee venom: role in suppressing adjuvant induced arthritis and methotrexate hepatotoxicity in rats. Plos One 8(11):e79284PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. de Castro CS, Silvestre FG, Araujo SC, Gabriel de MY, Mangili OC, Cruz I, Chavez-Olortegui C, Kalapothakis E (2004) Identification and molecular cloning of insecticidal toxins from the venom of the brown spider Loxosceles intermedia. Toxicon 44:273–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. de Chalain TM (1996) Exploring the use of the medicinal leech: a clinical risk–benefit analysis. J Reconstr Microsurg 12:165–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Deshane J, Garner CC, Sontheimer H (2003) Chlorotoxin inhibits glioma cell invasion via matrix metalloproteinase-2. J Biol Chem 278(6):4135–4144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Dittrich AM, Erbacher A, Specht S, Diesner F, Krokowski M, Avagyan A, Stock P, Ahrens B, Hoffmann WH, Hoerauf A, Hamelmann E (2008) Helminth infection with Litomosoides sigmodontis induces regulatory T cells and inhibits allergic sensitization, airway inflammation, and hyperreactivity in a murine asthma model. J Immunol 180(3):1792–1799PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Donato JL, Moreno RA, Hyslop S, Duarte A, Antunes E, Le Bonniec BF, Rendu F, de Nucci G (1998) L. obliqua caterpillar spicules trigger human blood coagulation via activation of factor X and prothrombin. Thromb Haemost 79:539–542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Dorn DC, Kou CA, Png KJ, Moore MA (2009) The effect of cantharidins on leukemic stem cells. Int J Cancer 124:2186–2199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Duke RC, Witter RZ, Nash PB, Young JDE, Ojcius DM (1994) Cytolysis mediated by ionophores and pore-forming agents: role of intracellular calcium in apoptosis. FASEB J 8(2):237–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Efferth T (2005) Mechanistic perspectives for 1,2,4-trioxanes in anti-cancer therapy. Drug Resist Updat 8:85–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Efferth T, Rauh R, Kahl S, Tomicic M, Böchzelt H, Tome ME, Briehl MM, Bauer R, Kaina B (2005) Molecular modes of action of cantharidin in tumor cells. Biochem Pharmacol 1; 69(5):811–888Google Scholar
  69. Eldor A, Orevi M, Rigbi M (1996) Role of the leech in medical therapeutics. Blood Rev 10:201–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Ellenhorn MJ (1997) Ellenhorn’s medical toxicology: diagnosis and treatment of human poisoning, 2nd edn. Md Williams & Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  71. Escoubas P (2006) Molecular diversification in spider venoms: a web of combinatorial peptide libraries. Mol Divers 10(4):545–554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Escoubas P, De Weille JR, Lecoq A, Diochot S, Waldmann R, Champigny G, Moinier D, Menez A, Lazdunski M (2000) Isolation of a tarantula toxin specific for a class of proton-gated Na+ channels. J Biol Chem 275(33):25116–25121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Etesse B, Beaudroit L, Deleuze M, Nouvellon E, Ripart J (2009) Hyaluronidase: here we go again. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 28:658–665PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Feng L, Gao R, Gopalakrishnakone P (2008) Isolation and characterization of a hyaluronidase from the venom of Chinese red scorpion Buthus martensi. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 148:250–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Fields WS (1991) The history of leeching and hirudin. Haemostasis 21:3–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Fine A, Alexander H (1934) Maggot therapy: technique and clinical application. J Bone Joint Surg Am 16:572–582Google Scholar
  77. Fiołka MJ, Lewtak K, Rzymowska J, Grzywnowicz K, Hułas-Stasiak M, Sofińska-Chmiel W, Skrzypiec K (2013) Antifungal and anticancer effects of a polysaccharide-protein complex from the gut bacterium Raoultella ornithinolytica isolated from the earthworm Dendrobaena veneta. Pathog Dis 21Google Scholar
  78. Fleischmann W, Russ M, Moch D, Marquardt C (1999) Biosurgery—maggots, are they really the better surgeons? Biochirurgie-Sind Fliegenmaden wirklich die besseren Chirurgen? 70(11):1340–1346Google Scholar
  79. Foucher G, Henderson HR, Maneau M, Merie M, Braun FM (1981) Microsurgery. Int J Microsurg 3:265–270Google Scholar
  80. Funt TR (1961) Cantharidin treatment of molluscum contagiosum. Arch Dermatol 83:504–505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Futrell JM (1992) Loxoscelism. Am J Med Sci 304:261–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Gantenbein B, Largiadèr CR (2003) The phylogeographic importance of the Strait of Gibraltar as a gene flow barrier in terrestrial arthropods: a case study with the scorpion Buthus occitanus as model organism. Mol Phylogenet Evol 28:119–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Gao L, Yu S, Wu Y, Shan B (2007) Effect of spider venom on cell apoptosis and necrosis rates in MCF-7 cells. DNA Cell Biol 26(7):485–489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Gao R, Zhang Y, Gopalakrishnakone P (2008) Purification and N-terminal sequence of a serine proteinase-like protein (BMK-CBP) from the venom of the Chinese scorpion (Buthus martensii Karsch). Toxicon 52(2):348–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Gao F, Kiesewetter D, Chang L, Ma K, Rapoport SI, Igarashi M (2009) Whole-body synthesis secretion of docosahexaenoic acid from circulating eicosapentaenoic acid in unanesthetized rats. J Lipid Res 50:2463–2470PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Garg SK, Croft AM, Bager P (2014) Helminth therapy (worms) for induction of remission in inflammatory bowel disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 20:1Google Scholar
  87. Gest JE, Salomon Y (1987) Inhibition by melittin and fluphenazine of melanotropin receptor function and adenylate cyclase in M2R melanoma cell membranes. Endocrinology 121:1766–1772Google Scholar
  88. Gevod VS, Birdi KS (1984) Melittin and the 8-26 fragment. Differences in ionophoric properties as measured by monolayer method. Biophys J 45(6):1079–1083PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Girish KS, Kemparaju K (2007) The magic glue hyaluronan and its eraser hyaluronidase: a biological overview. Life Sci 80:1921–1943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Glavinovic MI, Joshi A, Trifaró JM (1992) Mastoparan blockade of currents through Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels in bovine chromaffin cells. Neurosciences 50:675–684Google Scholar
  91. Godekmerdan A, Arusan S, Bayar B, Saglam N (2011) Medicinal leeches and hirudotherapy. Turkiye Parazitoloji Derg 35:234–239Google Scholar
  92. Goolsby TV, Lombardo FA (2006) Extravasation of chemotherapeutic agents: prevention and treatment. Semin Oncol 33:139–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Goudet C, Chi CW, Tytgat J (2002) An overview of toxins and genes from the venom of the Asian scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch. Toxicon 40(9):1239–1258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Gouveia AICB, Silveira RB, Nader HB, Dietrich CP, Gremski W, Veiga SS (2005) Identification and partial characterization of hyaluronidades in Lonomia obliqua venom. Toxicon 45:403–410Google Scholar
  95. Gremski LH, da Silveira RB, Chaim OM, Probst CM, Ferrer VP, Nowatzki J, Weinschutz HC, Madeira HM, Gremski W, Nader HB, Senff-Ribeiro A, Veiga SS (2010) A novel expression profile of the Loxosceles intermedia spider venomous gland revealed by transcriptome analysis. Mol Biosyst 6:2403–2416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Gross MP, Apesos J (1992) The use of leeches for treatment of venous congestion of the nipple following breast surgery. Aesthetic Plast Surg 16:343–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Gruden-Movsesijan A, Ilic N, Mostarica-Stojkovic M, Stosic-Grujicic S, Milic M, Sofronic-Milosavljevic L (2008) Trichinella spiralis: modulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in DA rats. Exp Parasitol 118(4):641–647PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Gupta SD, Gomes A, Debnath A, Saha A (2010) Apoptosis induction in human leukemic cells by a novel protein Bengalin, isolated from Indian black scorpion venom: through mitochondrial pathway and inhibition of heat shock proteins. Chem Biol Interact 183(2):293–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Gwee MCE, Nirthanan S, Khoo HE, Gopalakrishnakone P, Kini RM, Cheah LS (2002) Autonomic effects of some scorpion venoms and toxins. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 29(9):795–801PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Haeberli S, Kuhn-Nentwig L, Schaller J, Nentwig W (2000) Characterisation of antibacterial activity of peptides isolated from the venom of the spider Cupiennius salei (Araneae: Ctenidae). Toxicon 38:373–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Hahn BS, Jo YY, Yang KY, Wu SJ, Pyo MK, Yun-Choi HS, Kim YS (1997) Evaluation of the in vivo antithrombotic, anticoagulant and fibrinolytic activities of Lumbricus rubellus earthworm powder. Arch Pharm Res 20:17–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Hait WN, Cadman E, Benz C, Cole J, Weiss B (1983) Inhibition of growth of L1210 cyclic leukemic cells by inhibitors of nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calmodulin. Cancer Res 2:5–9Google Scholar
  103. Hama A, Sagen J (2009) Antinociceptive effects of the marine snail peptides conantokin-G and conotoxin MVIIA alone and in combination in rat models of pain. Neuropharmacology 56:556–563PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Han SM, Lee KG, Pak SC (2013) Effects of cosmetics containing purified honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) venom on acne vulgaris. J Integr Med 11(5):320–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Harris LG, Bexfield A, Nigam Y, Rohde H, Ratcliffe NA, Mack D (2009) Disruption of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms by medicinal maggot Lucilia sericata excretions/secretions. Int J Artif Organs 32:555–564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Haycraft JB (1884) On the action of secretion obtained from the medicinal leech on coagulation of the blood. Proc R Soc London 36:478Google Scholar
  107. Higashijima T, Uzu S, Nakajima T, Ross EM (1988) Mastoparan, a peptide toxin from wasp venom, mimics receptors by activating GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins). J Biol Chem 263(14):6491–6494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Hill TA, Stewart SG, Sauer B, Gilbert J, Ackland SP, Sakoff JA, McCluskey A (2007) Heterocyclic substituted cantharidin and norcantharidin analogues—synthesis, protein phosphatase (1 and 2A) inhibition, and anti-cancer activity. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 17:3392–3397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Hirai Y, Kuwada M, Yasuhara T, Yoshida H, Nakajima T (1979) A new mast cell degranulating peptide homologous to Mastoparan in the venom of Japanese hornet (Vespa xanthoptera). Chem Pharm Bull 27(8):1945–1946PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Holle L, Song W, Holle E, Wei Y, Wagner T, Yu X (2003) A matrix metalloproteinase 2 cleavable melittin/avidin conjugate specifically targets tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Int J Oncol 22:93–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Horobin AJ, Shakesheff KM, Pritchard DI (2005) Maggots and wound healing: an investigation of the effects of secretions from Lucilia sericata larvae upon the migration of human dermal fibroblasts over a fibronectin-coated surface. Wound Repair Regen 13(4):422–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Hossler EW (2009) Caterpillars and moths. Dermatol Ther 22(4):353–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Hsieh CH, Chao KSC, Liao HF, Chen YJ (2013) Norcantharidin, derivative of cantharidin, for cancer stem cells. Evidence-based Complementary Altern Med 2013:838651Google Scholar
  114. Hu H, Chen D, Li Y, Zhang X (2006) Effect of polypeptides in bee venom on growth inhibition and apoptosis induction of the human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721 in-vitro and Balb/c nude mice in-vivo. J Pharm Pharmacol 58:83–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Hunter MM, Wang A, Hirota CL, McKay DM (2005) Neutralizing anti-IL-10 antibody blocks the protective effect of tapeworm infection in a murine model of chemically induced colitis. J Immunol 174(11):7368–7375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Ikizceli I, Avsarogullari L, Sözüer E, Yürümez Y, Akdur O (2005) Bleeding due to a medicinal leech bite. Emerg Med J 22(6):458–460PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Introna F, Campobasso CP, Goff ML (2001) Entomotoxicology. Forensic Sci Int 120:42–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Ip SW, Liao SS, Lin SY, Lin JP, Yang JS, Lin ML, Chen GW, Lu HF, Lin MW, Han SM, Chung JG (2008a) The role of mitochondria in bee venom-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF7 cells. In Vivo 22:237–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Ip SW, Wei HC, Lin JP, Kuo HM, Liu KC, Hsu SC, Yang JS, Mei Dueyang Chiu TH, Han SM, Chung JG (2008b) Bee venom induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human cervical epidermoid carcinoma Ca Ski cells. Anticancer Res 28:833–842PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Jang MH, Shin MC, Lim S, Han SM, Park HJ, Shin I, Lee JS, Kim K, Kim EH, Kim CJ (2003) Bee venom induces apoptosis and inhibits expression of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA in human lung cancer cell line NCI-H1299. J Pharmacol Sci 91:95–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Jang HS, Chung HS, Ko E, Shin JS, Shin MK, Hong MC, Kim Y, Min BI, Bae H (2009) Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in response to treatment with bee venom in lipopolysaccharide activated RAW 264.7 cells. J Ethnopharmacol 121(2):213–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Joo SS, Won TJ, Kim JS, Yoo YM, Tak ES, Park SY, Park HY, Hwang KW, Park SC, Lee do I (2009) Inhibition of coagulation activation and inflammation by a novel Factor Xa inhibitor synthesized from the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Biol Pharm Bull 32:253–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Joyce-Brady M, Rubins JB, Panchenko MP, Bernardo J, Steele MP, Kolm L, Simons ER, Dickey BF (1991) Mechanisms of mastoparan-stimulated surfactant secretion from isolated pulmonary alveolar type 2 cells. J Biol Chem 266:6859–6865PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Kadioglu O, Kermani NS, Kelter G, Schumacher U, Fiebig HH, Greten HJ, Efferth T (2014) Pharmacogenomics of cantharidin in tumor cells. Biochem Pharmacol 87(3):399–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Kalapothakis E, Chatzaki M, Goncalves-Dornelas H, de Castro CS, Silvestre FG, Laborne FV, de Moura JF, Veiga SS, Chavez-Olortegui C, Granier C, Barbaro KC (2007) The Loxtox protein family in Loxosceles intermedia (Mello-Leitao) venom. Toxicon 50:938–946PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Kalender ME, Comez G, Sevinc A, Dirier A, Camci C (2010) Leech therapy for symptomatic relief of cancer pain. Pain Med 11:443–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Karimzadeh L, Nabiuni M, Kouchesfehani HM, Adham H, Bagheri A, Sheikholeslami A (2013) Effect of bee venom on IL-6, COX-2 and VEGF levels in polycystic ovarian syndrome induced in Wistar rats by estradiol valerate. J Venomous Animals Toxins Including Tropical Dis 19:32Google Scholar
  128. Kekre N, Griffin C, McNulty J, Pandey S (2005) Pancratistatin causes early activation of caspase-3 and the flipping of phosphatidyl serine followed by rapid apoptosis specifically in human lymphoma cells. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 56(1):29–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Kelen EMA, Picarelli ZP, Duarte AC (1995) Hemorrhagic syndrome induced by contact with caterpillars of the genus Lonomia (Saturniidae, Hemileucinae). J Toxicol Toxin Rev 14:283–308Google Scholar
  130. Kerridge A, Lappin-Scott H, Stevens JR (2005) Antibacterial properties of larval secretions of the blowfly, Lucilia sericata. Med Vet Entomol 19:333–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Khan WI, Blennerhasset PA, Varghese AK, Chowdhury SK, Omsted P, Deng Y, Collins SM (2002) Intestinal nematode infection ameliorates experimental colitis in mice. Infect Immun 70(11):5931–5937PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Kim YS, Pyo MK, Park KM, Hahn BS, Yang KY, Yun-Choi HS (1998) Dose dependency of earthworm powder on antithrombotic and fibrinolytic effects. Arch Pharm Res 21:374–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Kim JE, Koo KH, Kim YH, Sohn J, Park YG (2008) Identification of potential lung cancer biomarkers using an in vitro carcinogenesis model. Exp Mol Med 40:709–720PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Kim YM, Ku MJ, Son YJ, Yun JM, Kim SH, Lee SY (2013) Anti-metastatic effect of cantharidin in A549 human lung cancer cells. Arch Pharm Res 36(4):479–484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Kini RM (2006) Anticoagulant proteins from snake venoms: structure, function and mechanism. Biochem J 397(3):377–387PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Kintz P, Godelar A, Tracqui A, Mangin P, Lugnier AA, Chaumont AJ (1990) Fly larvae: a new toxicological method of investigation in forensic medicine. J Forensic Sci 35:204–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Kollipara PS, Kim JH, Won D, Lee SM, Sung HC, Chang HS, Lee KT, Lee KS, Park MH, Song MJ, Song HS, Hong JT (2014) Co-culture with NK-92MI cells enhanced the anti-cancer effect of bee venom on NSCLC cells by inactivation of NF-κB. Arch Pharm Res 1:1Google Scholar
  138. Kuhn-Nentwig L (2003) Antimicrobial and cytolytic peptides of venomous arthropods. Cell Mol Life Sci 60:2651–2668PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Kuijk LM, Klaver EJ, Kooij G, van der Pol SMA, Heijnen P, Bruijns SCM, Kringel H, Pinelli E, Kraal G, de Vries HE, Dijkstra CD, Bouma G, van Die I (2012) Soluble helminth products suppress clinical signs in murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and differentially modulate human dendritic cell activation. Mol Immunol 51(2):210–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Lee GL, Hait WN (1985) Inhibition of growth of C6 astrocytoma cells by inhibitors of calmodulin. Life Sci 36(4):347–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Lee JD, Park HJ, Chae Y, Lim S (2005) An overview of bee venom acupuncture in the treatment of arthritis. Evidence-based Complement Altern Med 2(1):79–84Google Scholar
  142. Lee YJ, Kang SJ, Kim BM, Kim YJ, Woo HD, Chung HW (2007) Cytotoxicity of honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom in normal human lymphocytes and HL-60 Cells. Chem Biol Interact 169:189–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Lee YC, Lee LM, Yang CH, Lin AMY, Huang YC, Hsu CC, Chen MS, Chi CW, Yin PH, Kuo CD, Liao JF, Lee HC (2013) Norcantharidin suppresses cell growth and migration with enhanced anticancer activity of gefitinib and cisplatin in human non-small cell lung cancer cells. Oncol Rep 29(1):237–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Li XH, Zhang DX, Xu JF, Wang WY, Du YM, Zhang Y, Lei YW, Zhang YX (2007) Effect of earthworm decoction on airway inflammation of bronchial asthma in guinea pigs. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 32(14):1445–1448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Li W, Li S, Zhong J, Zhu Z, Liu J, Wang W (2011) A novel antimicrobial peptide from skin secretions of the earthworm, Pheretima guillelmi (Michaelsen). Peptides 32(6):1146–1150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Lippens G (1995) NMR sequential assignments and solution structure of chlorotoxin, a small scorpion toxin that blocks chloride channels 4,5. Biochemistry 34(1):13–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Liu D, Chen Z (2009) The effects of cantharidin and cantharidin derivates on tumour cells. Anticancer Agents Med Chem 9:392–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Liu YF, Ma RL, Wang SL, Duan ZY, Zhang JH, Wu LJ, Wu CF (2003) Expression of an antitumor-analgesic peptide from the venom of Chinese scorpion Buthus martensii karsch in Escherichia coli. Protein Expr Purif 27:253–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Liu XD, Zhang JL, Zheng HG, Liu FY, Chen Y (2008) Clinical randomized study of bee-sting therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 33(3):197–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Liu CH, Lin YM, Tang NY, Liu HJ, Huang CY, Hsieh CL (2013) Effect of oral administration of Pheretima Aspergillum (Earthworm) in rats with cerebral infarction induced by middle-cerebral artery occlusion. Afr J Tradis Complement Altern Med 10:66–82Google Scholar
  151. Lokeshwar VB, Selzer MG (2008) Hyalurondiase: both a tumor promoter and suppressor. Semin Cancer Biol 18:281–287PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Lubbers NL, Campbell TJ, Polakowski JS, Bulaj G, Layer RT, Moore J, Gross GJ, Cox BF (2005) Postischemic administration of CGX-1051, a peptide from cone snail venom, reduces infarct size in both rat and dog models of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 46:141–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Luo C, Chen J, Li HL, Li JS (1998) Spatial and temporal expression of c-Fos protein in the spinal cord of anesthetized rat induced by subcutaneous bee venom injection. Brain Res 806:175–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Ma Q, Geng Y, Xu W, Wu Y, He F, Shu W, Huang M, Du H, Li M (2009) The role of translationally controlled tumor protein in tumor growth and metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma cells. J Proteome Res 9:40–49Google Scholar
  155. Mangan NE, Fallon RE, Smith P, Van Rooijen N, McKenzie AN, Fallon PG (2004) Helminth infection protects mice from anaphylaxis via IL-10-producing B cells. J Immunol 173(10):6346–6356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Mangan NE, Van Rooijen N, McKenzie ANJ, Fallon PG (2006) Helminth-modified pulmonary immune response protects mice from allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. J Immunol 176(1):138–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Marineau ML, Herrington MT, Swenor KM, Eron LJ (2011) Maggot debridement therapy in the treatment of complex diabetic wounds. Hawaii Med J 70(6):121–124PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Markwardt F (1956) Studies on the mechanism of the anticoagulant effect of hirudin. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Exp Pathol Pharmakol 229:389–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Markwardt F (2002) Hirudin as alternative anticoagulant—a historical review. Semin Tromb Hemost 28:405–414Google Scholar
  160. Marsh N, Williams V (2005) Practical applications of snake venom toxins in haemostasis. Toxicon 45:1171–1181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Matausic-Pisl M, Tomicic M, Micek V, Grdisa M (2011) Influences of earthworm extract G-90 on haematological and haemostatic parameters in Wistar rats. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 15(1):71–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Matsushita O, Okabi A (2001) Clostridial hydrolytic enzymes degrading extracellular components. Toxicon 39:1769–1780PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Matsuzaki K, Sugishita K, Harada M, Fujii N, Miyajima K (1997) Interactions of an antimicrobial peptide, magainin 2, with outer and inner membranes of gram-negative bacteria. Biochim Biophys Acta 1327:119–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. McInnes IB, Leung BP, Harnett M, Gracie JA, Liew FY, Harnett W (2003) A novel therapeutic approach targeting articular inflammation using the filarial nematode-derived phosphorylcholine-containing glycoprotein ES-62. J Immunol 171(4):2127–2133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. McKay DM (2008) The therapeutic helminth? Trends Parasitol 25:109–114Google Scholar
  166. McKay DM (2009) The therapeutic helminth? Trends Parasitol 25(3):109–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. McLachlan A, Kekre N, McNulty J, Pandey (2005) Pancratistatin: a natural anti-cancer compound that targets mitochondria specifically in cancer cells to induce apoptosis. Apoptosis 10(3):619–630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Michalsen A, Klotz S, Ludtke R (2003) Effectiveness of leech therapy in osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 139:724–730PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Mihara H, Sumi H, Mizumoto H, Ikeda R, Seiki M, Maruyama M (1991) A novel fibrinolytic enzyme extracted from the earthworm, Lumbricus rubellus. Jpn J Physiol 41(3):461–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Miljanich GP (2004) Ziconotide: neuronal calcium channel blocker for treating severe chronic pain. Curr Med Chem 11(23):3029–3040PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Miller ML, Lord WD, Goff ML, Donnelly B, McDonough ET, Alexis JC (1994) Isolation of amitrptyline and nortriptyline from fly puparia (Phoridae) and beetle exuviae (Dermestidae) associated with mummified human remains. J Forensic Sci 39:1305–1313Google Scholar
  172. Moller M, Gravenor MB, Roberts SE, Sun D, Gao P, Hopkin JM (2007) Genetic haplotypes of Th-2 immune signalling link allergy to enhanced protection to parasitic worms. Hum Mol Genet 16(15):1828–1836PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Moon DO, Park SY, Heo MS, Kim KC, Park C, Ko WS (2006) Key regulators in bee venom-induced apoptosis are Bcl-2 and caspase-3 in human leukemic U937 cells through downregulation of ERK and Akt. Int Immunopharmacol 6(12):1796–1807PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Moore AJ, Devine DA, Bibby MC (1994) Preliminary experimental anticancer activity of cecropins. Pept Res 7:265–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Moreels TG, Nieuwendijk RJ, De Man JG, De Winter BY, Herman AG, Van Marck EA, Pelckmans PA (2004) Concurrent infection with Schistosoma mansoni attenuates inflammation induced changes in colonic morphology, cytokine levels, and smooth muscle contractility of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid induced colitis in rats. Gut 53(1):99–107PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Mortenson BW, Dawson KH, Murakami C (1998) Medicinal leeches used to salvage a traumatic nasal flap. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 36(6):462–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Mortimer K, Brown A, Feary J, Jagger C, Lewis S, Antoniak M, Pritchard D, Britton J (2006) Dose-ranging study for trials of therapeutic infection with Necator americanus in humans. AmJTrop Med Hyg 75(5):914–920Google Scholar
  178. Mousavi SM, Imani S, Haghighi S, Mousavi SE, Karimi A (2012) Effect of Iranian honey bee (apis mellifera) venom on blood glucose and insulin in diabetic rats. J Arthropod-Borne Dis 6(2):136–143PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Moye VA, Cathcart S, Morrell DS (2014) Safety of cantharidin: a retrospective review of cantharidin treatment in 405 children with molluscum contagosum. Pediatr Dermatol 31(4):450–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Muchmore DB, Vaughn DE (2010) Review of the mechanism of action and clinical efficacy of recombinant human hyaluronidase coadministration with current prandial insulin formulations. J Diabetes Sci Technol 4:419–428PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Mumcuoglu KY (2001) Clinical applications for maggots in wound care. Am J Derm 2:219–227Google Scholar
  182. Nakajima T, Uzu S, Wakamatsu K, Saito K, Miyazawa T, Yasuhara T, Tsukamoto Y, Fujino M (1986) Amphiphilic peptides in wasp venom. Biopolymers 25:115–121Google Scholar
  183. Nam KW, Je KH, Lee JH, Han HJ, Lee HJ, Kang SK, Mar W (2003) Inhibition of COX-2 activity and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-1beta) production by water-soluble sub-fractionated parts from bee (Apis mellifera) venom. Arch Pharm Res 26(5):383–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Namias N, Varela JE, Varas RP, Quintana O, Ward CG (2000) Biodebridement: a case report of maggot therapy for limb salvage after fourth-degree burns. J Burn Care Rehabil 21:254–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Nolte KB, Pinder RD, Lord WD (1992) Insect larvae used to detect cocaine poisoning in a decomposed body. J Forensic Sci 37(4):1179–1185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Ori M, Ikeda H (1998) Spider venoms and spider toxins. J Toxicol Toxin Rev 17(3):405–426Google Scholar
  187. Oršolić N (2012) Bee venom in cancer therapy. Cancer Metastasis Rev 31(1–2):173–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Orsolić N, Sver L, Verstovsek S, Terzic S, Basic I (2003) Inhibition of mammary carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo by bee venom. Toxicon 41:861–870PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Osada Y, Shimizu S, Kumagai T, Yamada S, Kanazawa T (2009) Schistosoma mansoni infection reduces severity of collagen-induced arthritis via down-regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators. Int J Parasitol 39(4):457–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Ownby CL, Powell JR, Jiang MS, Fletcher JE (1997) Melittin and phospholipase A2 from bee (Apis mellifera) venom cause necrosis of murine skeletal muscle in vivo. Toxicon 35(1):67–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Ozaki Y, Matsumoto Y, Yatomi Y, Higashirhara M, Kariya T, Kume S (1990) Mastoparan, a wasp venom, activates platelets via pertussis toxin-sensitive GTP-binding proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 170:779–785PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Pan R, Zhou Y, He HJ, He RQ (2011) An enzyme from the earthworm Eisenia fetida is not only a protease but also a deoxyribonuclease. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 407(1):113–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Park SP, Kim BM, Koo JY, Cho H, Lee CH, Kim M, Na HS, Oh U (2008) A tarantula spider toxin, GsMTx4, reduces mechanical and neuropathic pain. PAIN 137(1):208–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Pechter EA, Sherman RA (1983) Maggot therapy: the surgical metamorphosis. Plast Reconstr Surg 72(4):567–570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Perianin A, Snyderman R (1989) Mastoparan, a wasp venom peptide, identifies two discrete mechanisms for elevating cytosolic calcium and inositol trisphosphates in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J Immunol 143:1669–1673PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Pfeiffer DR, Gudz TI, Novgorodov SA, Erdahl WL (1995) The peptide mastoparan is a potent facilitator of the mitochondrial permeability transition. J Biol Chem 270:4923–4932PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Pien K, Laloup M, Pipeleers-Marichal M (2004) Toxicological data and growth characteristics of single post-feeding larvae and puparia of Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) obtained from a controlled nordiazepam study. Int J Leg Med 118:190–193Google Scholar
  198. Pinto AF, Silva KR, Guimarães JA (2006) Proteases from Lonomia obliqua venomous secretions: comparison of procoagulant, fibrin (ogen) olytic and amidolytic activities. Toxicon 47(1):113–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Possani LD, Merino E, Corona M, Bolivar F, Becerril B (2000) Peptides and genes coding for scorpion toxins that affect ion-channels. Biochimie 82(9–10):861–868PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Prakash M, Gunasekaran G (2010) Gastroprotective effect of earthworm paste (Lampito mauritii, Kinberg) on experimental gastric ulcer in rats. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 14(3):171–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Prezoto BC, Maffei FHA, Mattar L, Chudzinski-Tavassi AM, Curi PR (2002) Antithrombotic effect of Lonomia obliqua caterpillar bristle extract on experimental venous thrombosis. Braz J Med Biol Res 35(6):703–712PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Quintero-Hernández V, Jiménez-Vargas JM, Gurrola GB, Valdivia HH, Possani LD (2013) Scorpion venom components that affect ion-channels function. Toxicon 76:328–342PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Rash LD, Hodgson WC (2002) Pharmacology and biochemistry of spider venoms. Toxicon 40:225–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Rauh R, Kahl S, Boechzelt H (2007) Molecular biology of cantharidin in cancer cells. Chin Med 2:8PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Reddy A, Fried B (2007) The use of Trichuris suis and other helminth therapies to treat Crohn’s disease. Parasitol Res 100(5):921–927PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Reddy A, Fried B (2009) An update on the use of helminths to treat Crohn’s and other autoimmunune diseases. Parasitol Res 104(2):217–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Reibe S, Doetinchem PV, Madea B (2010) A new simulation-based model for calculating post-mortem intervals using developmental data for Lucilia sericata (Dipt.: Calliphoridae). Parasitol Res 107(1):9–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Reis CV, Kelen EMA, Farsky SHP, Portaro FCV, Sampaio CAM, Fernandes BL, Camargo ACM, Chudzinski-Tavassi AM (1999) A Ca2+ activated serine protease (LOPAP) could be responsible for the haemorrhagic syndrome caused by the caterpillar L. obliqua. Lancet 353:1942PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Reis CV, Portaro FC, Andrade SA, Fritzen M, Fernandes BL, Sampaio CA, Camargo AC, Chudzinski-Tavassi AM (2001) A prothrombin activator serine protease from the Lonomia oblique caterpillar venom (Lopap) biochemical characterization. Thromb Res 102:427–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Riede F, Koenen W, Goerdt S, Ehmke H, Faulhaber J (2010) Medicinal leeches for the treatment of venous congestion and hematoma after plastic reconstructive surgery. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 8(11):881–888PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Robinson W (1935) Stimulation of healing in non-healing wounds by allantoin occurring in maggot secretions and of wide biological distribution. J Bone Joint Surg 17:267–271Google Scholar
  212. Robinson W (1940) Ammonium bicarbonate secreted by surgical maggots stimulates healing in purulent wounds. Am J Surg 47:111–115Google Scholar
  213. Robinson W, Norwood VH (1933) The role of surgical maggots in the disinfection of osteomyelitis and other infected wounds. J Bone Joint Surg 15:409–412Google Scholar
  214. Rocha FA, Leite AK, Pompeu MM, Cunha TM, Verri WA Jr, Soares FM, Castro RR, Cunha FQ (2008) Protective effect of an extract from Ascaris suum in experimental arthritis models. Infect Immun 76(6):2736–2745PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Rodrigues EG, Dobroff AS, Cavarsan CF, Paschoalin T, Nimrichter L, Mortara RA, Santos EL, Fázio MA, Miranda A, Daffre S, Travassos LR (2008) Effective topical treatment of subcutaneous murine B16F10-Nex2 melanoma by the antimicrobial peptide gomesin. Neoplasia 10(1):61–68PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Rook GAW (2009) Review series on helminths, immune modulation and the hygiene hypothesis: the broader implications of the hygiene hypothesis. Immunology 126(1):3–11PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Ruyssers NE, De Winter BY, De Man JG, Ruyssers ND, Van Gils AJ, Loukas A, Pearson MS, Weinstock JV, Pelckmans PA, Moreels TG (2010) Schistosoma mansoni proteins attenuate gastrointestinal motility disturbances during experimental colitis in mice. World J Gastroenterol 16(6):703–712PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Sales PB, Santoro ML (2008) Nucleotidase and DNase activities in Brazilian snake venoms. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 147:85–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Schopf L, Luccioli S, Bundoc V, Justice P, Chan C-C, Wetzel BJ, Norris HH, Urban JF, Keane-Myers A (2005) Differential modulation of allergic eye disease by chronic and acute ascaris infection. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46(8):2772–2780PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Schroeder FC, Taggi AE, Gronquist M, Malik RU, Grant JB, Eisner T, Meinwald J (2008) NMR spectroscopic screening of spider venom reveals sulfated nucleosides as major components for the brown recluse and related species. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:14283–14287PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Seibert CS, Tanaka-Azevedo AM, Santoro ML, Mackessy SP, Soares Torquato RJ, Lebrun I, Tanaka AS, Sano-Martins IS (2006) Purification of a phospholypase A2 from Lonomia obliqua caterpillar. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 342(4):1027–1033PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Senff-Ribeiro A, Henrique da Silva P, Chaim OM, Gremski LH, Paludo KS, Bertoni da Silveira R, Gremski W, Mangili OC, Veiga SS (2008) Biotechnological applications of brown spider (Loxosceles genus) venom toxins. Biotechnol Adv 26:210–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Seo BK, Lee JH, Sung WS, Song EM, Jo DJ (2013) Bee venom acupuncture for the treatment of chronic low back pain: study protocol for a randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled trial. Trials 14:16PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Sewell D, Qing Z, Reinke E, Elliot D, Weinstock J, Sandor M, Fabry Z (2003) Immunomodulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by helminth ova immunization. Int Immunol 15(1):59–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Shaposhnikova VV, Egorova MV, Kudryavtsev AA, Levitman MK, Korystov YN (1997) The effect of melittin on proliferation and death of thymocytes. FEBS Lett 410(2–3):285–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Sharma SV (1992) Melittin resistance: a counterselection for ras transformation. Oncogene 7(2):193–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Sherman RA (2003) Maggot therapy for treating diabetic foot ulcers unresponsive to conventional therapy. Diabetes Care 26(2):446–451PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Sherman RA (2009) Maggot therapy takes us back to the future of wound care: new and improved maggot therapy for the 21st century. J Diabetes Sci Technol 3(2):336–344PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Sherman RA, Shimoda KJ (2004) Presurgical maggot debridement of soft tissue wounds is associated with decreased rates of postoperative infection. Clin Infect Dis 39(7):1067–1070PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Sherman RA, Wyle FA, Vulpe M (1995) Maggot therapy for treating pressure ulcers in spinal cord injury patients. J Spinal Cord Med 18(2):71–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Sherman RA, Hall MJR, Thomas S (2000) Medicinal maggots: an ancient remedy for some contemporary afflictions. Annu Rev Entomol 45(1):55–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Sherman RA, Shapiro CE, Yang RM (2007) Maggot therapy for problematic wounds: uncommon and off-label applications. Adv Skin Wound Care 20(11):602–610PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Shin SY, Lee MK, Kim KL, Hahm KS (1997) Structure-antitumor and hemolytic activity relationships of synthetic peptides derived from cecropin A-magainin 2 and cecropin A-melittin hybrid peptides. J Pept Res 50:279–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Siedlakowski P, McLachlan-Burgess A, Griffin C, Tirumalai SS, McNulty J, Pandey S (2008) Synergy of pancratistatin and tamoxifen on breast cancer cells in inducing apoptosis by targeting mitochondria. Cancer Biol Ther 7(3):376–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Slaby O, Sobkova K, Svoboda M, Garajova I, Fabian P, Hrstka R, Nenutil R, Sachlova M, Kocakova I, Michalek J, Smerdova T, Knoflickova D, Vyzula R (2009) Significant overexpression of Hsp110 gene during colorectal cancer progression. Oncol Rep 21:1235–1241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Smith KJ, Skelton HG, Turiansky G, Wagner KF (1997) Hyaluronidase enhances the therapeutic effect of vinblastine in intralesional treatment of Kaposis’s sarcoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 36:239–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Smith P, Mangan NE, Walsh CM, Fallon RE, McKenzie ANJ, van Rooijen N, Fallon PG (2007) Infection with a helminth parasite prevents experimental colitis via a macrophage-mediated mechanism. J Immunol 178(7):4557–4566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Smits H, Everts B, Hartgers F, Yazdanbakhsh M (2010) Chronic helminth infections protect against allergic diseases by active regulatory processes. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 10(1):3–12PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Son DJ, Park MH, Chae SJ, Moon SO, Lee JW, Song HS, Moon DC, Kang SS, Kwon YE, Hong JT (2007) Inhibitory effect of snake venom toxin from Vipera lebetina turanica on hormone-refractory human prostate cancer cell growth: induction of apoptosis through inactivation of nuclear factor kappaB. Mol Cancer Ther 6(2):675–683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Sonoda Y, Hada N, Kaneda T, Suzuki T, Ohshio T, Takeda T, Kasahara T (2008) A synthetic glycosphingolipid-induced antiproliferative effect in melanoma cells is associated with suppression of FAK, Akt, and Erk activation. Biol Pharm Bull 31(6):1279–1283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Soroceanu L, Manning TJ Jr, Sontheimer H (1999) Modulation of glioma cell migration and invasion using Cl- and K+ ion channel blockers. J Neurosci 19(14):5942–5954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Souza AP, Peixoto CC, Maranga L, Carvalhal AV, Moraes RH, Mendonça RM, Pereira CA, Carrondo MJ, Mendonça RZ (2005) Purification and characterization of an anti-apoptotic protein isolated from Lonomia obliqua hemolymph. Biotechnol Prog 21:99–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Souza BM, da Silva AV, Resende VM, Arcuri HA, Dos Santos Cabrera MP, Ruggiero Neto J, Palma MS (2009) Characterization of two novel polyfunctional mastoparan peptides from the venom of the social wasp Polybia paulista. Peptides 30:387–1395Google Scholar
  244. Staats PS, Yearwood T, Charapata SG, Presley RW, Wallace MS, Byas-Smith M, Fisher R, Bryce DA, Mangieri EA, Luther RR, Mayo M, McGuire D, Ellis D (2004) Intrathecal ziconotide in the treatment of refractory pain in patients with cancer or AIDS: a randomized controlled trial. Jama 291:63–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Stamenova PK, Marchetti T, Simeonov I (2001) Efficacy and safety of topical hirudin (Hirudex): a doubleblind, placebo-controlled study. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 5:37–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Stix G (2005) A toxin against pain. Sci Am 292:88–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Strigenz T (2014) Ziconotide. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother 28(1):73–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Sukontason K, Narongchai P, Kanchai C, Vichairat K, Sribanditmongkol P, Bhoopat T, Kurahashi H, Chockjamsai M (2007) Forensic entomology cases in Thailand: a review of cases from 2000 to 2006. Parasitol Res 101:1417–1423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Summers RW, Elliott DE, Urban JF Jr, Thompson R, Weinstock JV (2005) Trichuris suis therapy for active ulcerative colitis: a randomized controlled trial. Gastroenterology 128(4):825–832PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Sun ZJ, Liu XC, Sun LH, Song C (1997) Earthworm as a potential protein resource. Ecology of Food Nutr 36(2–4):221–236Google Scholar
  251. Suttmann H, Retz M, Paulsen F, Harder J, Zwergel U, Kamradt J, Wullich B, Unteregger G, Stöckle M, Lehmann J (2008) Antimicrobial peptides of the Cecropin-family show potent antitumor activity against bladder cancer cells. BMC Urol 3:8Google Scholar
  252. Thyssen P, Mara de Souza C, Shimamoto PM, de Britto Salewski T, Moretti TC (2014) Rates of development of immatures of three species of Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) reared in different types of animal tissues: implications for estimating the postmortem interval. Parasitol Res 113(9):3373–3380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Tuncali D, Terzioglu A, Cigsar B, Aslan G (2004) The value of medical leeches in the treatment of class IIC ring avulsion injuries: report of 2 cases. J Hand Surg [Am] 29:943–946Google Scholar
  254. Tuynder M, Fiucci G, Prieur S, Lespagnol A, GÃant A, Beaucourt S, Duflaut D, Besse S, Susini L, Cavarelli J, Moras D, Amson R, Telerman A (2004) Translationally controlled tumor protein is a target of tumor reversion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(43):15364–15369PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. van de Loo A, Bode C (2002) Hirudin in acute coronary syndromes. Semin Tromb Hemost 28:459–466Google Scholar
  256. van de Sande WWJ, Janse D-J, Hira V, Goedhart H, van der Zee R, Ahmed AOA, Ott A, Verbrugh H, van Belkum A (2006) Translationally controlled tumor protein from Madurella mycetomatis, a marker for tumorous mycetoma progression. J Immunol 177(3):1997–2005PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. van den Biggelaar AHJ, van Ree R, Rodrigues LC, Lell B, Deelder AM, Kremsner PG, Yazdanbakhsh M (2000) Decreased atopy in children infected with Schistosoma haematobium: a role for parasite-induced interleukin-10. Lancet 356(9243):1723–1727PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. van der Plas MJ, Jukema GN, Wai SW, Dogterom-Ballering HC, Lagendijk EL, van Gulpen C, van Dissel JT, Bloemberg GV, Nibbering PH (2008) Maggot excretions/secretions are differentially effective against biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Antimicrob Chemother 61:117–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Van Kruiningen HJMD, West BAMDF (2005) Potential danger in the medical use of Trichuris suis for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. (Letter). Inflamm Bowel Dis 11(5):515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Varanda EA, Tavares DC (1998) Radioprotection: mechanism and radioprotective agents including honey bee venom. Venom Anim Toxins 4(1):5–21Google Scholar
  261. Varanda EA, Monti R, Tavares DC (1999) Inhibitory effect of propolis and bee venom on the mutagenicity of some direct- and indirect-acting mutagens. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen 19(6):403–413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Veiseh M, Gabikian P, Bahrami SB, Veiseh O, Zhang M, Hackman RC, Ravanpay AC, Stroud MR, Kusuma Y, Hansen SJ, Kwok D, Munoz NM, Sze RW, Grady WM, Greenberg NM, Ellenbogen RG, Olson JM (2007) Tumor paint: a chlorotoxin: Cy5.5 bioconjugate for intraoperative visualization of cancer foci. Cancer Res 67:6882–6888PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Villanova FE, Andrade E, Ãl L, Andrade PM, Borra RC, Troncone LRP, Magalhaes L, Leite KRM, Paranhos M, Claro J, Srougi M (2009) Erection induced by Tx2-6 toxin of Phoneutria nigriventer spider: expression profile of genes in the nitric oxide pathway of penile tissue of mice. Toxicon 54(6):793–801PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Vistnes LM, Lee R, Ksander GA (1981) Proteolytic activity of blowfly larvae secretions in experimental burns. Surgery 90(5):835–841PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Vitale V, Battelli D, Gasperoni E, Monachese N (2008) Intrathecal therapy with ziconotide: clinical experience and considerations on its use. Minerva Anestesiol 74(12):727–733PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. von Rheinbaben F, Riebe O, Koehnlein J, Werner S (2014) Viral infection risks for patients using the finished product Hirudo verbana (medicinal leech). Parasitol Res 113(11):4199–4205Google Scholar
  267. Wallace MA, Carter HR (1989) Effects of the wasp venom peptide, mastoparan, on a phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C purified from rabbit brain membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1006:311–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Walsh KP, Brady MT, Finlay CM, Boon L, Mills KH (2009) Infection with a helminth parasite attenuates autoimmunity through TGF-beta-mediated suppression of Th17 and Th1 responses. J Immunol 183(3):1577–1586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Walton RL, Beahm EK, Brown RE, Upton J, Reinke K, Fudem G, Banis J, Davidson J, Dabb R, Kalimuthu R, Kitzmiller WJ, Gottlieb LJ, Buncke HJ (1998) Microsurgical replantation of the lip: a multi-institutional experience. Plast Reconstr Surg 102(2):358–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Wang GS (1989) Medical uses of mylabris in ancient China and recent studies. J Ethnopharmacol 26(2):147–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Wang KR, Zhang BZ, Zhang W, Yan JX, Li J, Wang R (2008) Antitumor effects, cell selectivity and structure–activity relationship of a novel antimicrobial peptide polybia-MPI. Peptides 29:963–968PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Wang Z, Wang W, Shao Z, Gao B, Li J, Ma J, Li J, Che H, Zhang W (2009) Eukaryotic expression and purification of anti-epilepsy peptide of Buthus martensii Karsch and its protein interactions. Mol Cell Biochem 330(1–2):97–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Wayman J, Nirojogi V, Walker A, Sowinski A, Walker MA (2000) The cost effectiveness of larval therapy in venous ulcers. J Tissue Viability 10(3):91–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Weil G, Simon R, Sweadner WR (1933) A biological, bacteriological and clinical study of larval or maggot therapy in the treatment of acute and chronic pyogenic infections. Am J Surg 19:36–48Google Scholar
  275. Wheeler-Jones CPD, Saermark T, Kakkar V, Authi KS (1992) Mastoparan promotes exocytosis and increases intracellular cyclic AMP in human platelets. Evidence for the existence of a Ge-like mechanism of secretion. Biochem J 281:465–472PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Whitaker IS, Elmiyeh B, Wright DJ (2003) Hirudo medicinalis: the need for prophylactic antibiotics. Plast Reconstr Surg 112(4):1185–1186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Whitaker IS, Rao J, Izadi D, Butler PE (2004) Historical Article: Hirudo medicinalis: ancient origins of, and trends in the use of medicinal leeches throughout history. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 42(2):133–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Wilasrusmee C, Marjareonrungrung M, Eamkong S, Attia J, Poprom N, Jirasisrithum S, Thakkinstian A (2014) Maggot therapy for chronic ulcer: a retrospective cohort and a meta-analysis. Asian J Surg 37(3):138–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Winder D, Gunzburg WH, Erfle V, Salmons B (1998) Expression of antimicrobial peptides has an antitumour effect in human cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 242:608–612PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Wohlleben G, Trujillo C, MÃller J, Ritze Y, Grunewald S, Tatsch U, Erb KJ (2004) Helminth infection modulates the development of allergen-induced airway inflammation. Int Immunol 16(4):585–596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Yamada Y, Shinohara Y, Kakudo T, Chaki S, Futaki S, Kamiya H, Harashima H (2005) Mitochondrial delivery of mastoparan with transferring liposomes equipped with a pH-sensitive fusogenic peptide for selective cancer therapy. Int J Pharm 303:1–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Yang S, Xiao Y, Kang D, Liu J, Li Y, Undheim EA, Klint JK, Rong M, Lai R, King GF (2013) Discovery of a selective NaV1.7 inhibitor from centipede venom with analgesic efficacy exceeding morphine in rodent pain models. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(43):17534–17539PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Yoon SY, Kwon YB, Kim HW, Roh DH, Seo HS, Han HJ, Lee HJ, Beitz AJ, Lee JH (2008) Bee venom injection produces a peripheral anti-inflammatory effect by activation of a nitric oxide-dependent spinocoeruleus pathway. Neurosci Lett 430:163–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Zaidi SM, Jameel SS, Zaman F, Jilani S, Sultana A, Khan SA (2011) A systematic overview of the medicinal importance of sanguivorous leeches. Altern Med Rev 16(1):59–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Zhang SJ, Yang XM, Liu GS, Cohen MV, Pemberton K, Downey JM (2003) CGX-1051, a peptide from conus snail venom, attenuates infarction in rabbit hearts when administered at reperfusion. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 42:764–771PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Zheng LH, Bao YL, Wu Y, Yu CL, Meng X, Li YX (2008) Cantharidin reverses multidrug resistance of human hepatoma HepG2/ADM cells via down-regulation of P-glycoprotein expression. Cancer Lett 272:102–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Zhu W-L, Cheng H-X, Han NA, Liu D-L, Zhu W-X, Fan B-L, Duan F-L (2008) Messenger RNA Expression of translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) in liver regeneration and cancer. Anticancer Res 28(3A):1575–1580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Ziffren SE, Heist HE, May SC, Womack NA (1953) The secretion of collagenase by maggots and its implication. Ann Surg 138(6):932–934PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Zimmerberg J, Parsegian VA (1986) Polymer inaccessible volume changes during opening and closing of a voltage-dependent ionic channel. Nature 323(6083):36–39PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of MedicineMansoura UniversityMansouraEgypt

Personalised recommendations