Thelohanellus wangi n. sp. (Myxozoa, Myxosporea), a new gill parasite of allogynogenetic gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch) in China, causing severe gill myxosporidiosis
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We describe here a new myxozoan, Thelohanellus wangi n. sp., infecting the allogynogenetic gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch), in a fry nursery farm in Jiangsu Province, China. Polysporous gray white round or ovoid plasmodia, 500–1,500 μm in size, were found exclusively in the gill filaments. The diagnostic characteristics of the myxospores are as follows: spore melon seed shaped in frontal view with smooth surface and asymmetrical valves; convex-shaped in sutural view with straight or slightly bent and thick sutural line, averaging 20.2 (16.5–22.3) × 9.9 (9.1–10.8) × 9.3 μm (8.2–10.4) in size; and one elliptical polar capsules with subulate anterior end and round posterior end, averaging 10.1 (8.4–11.2) × 6.5 μm (6.1–7.0) in size. Polar filaments coil six to seven turns and are slightly oblique to the longitudinal axis of the polar capsule. An elongate melon seed-shaped mucus envelope surrounds almost completely the spore, but with largest distance in posterior end between spore valve and mucus envelope. Granular sporoplasm contains two slightly oval nuclei, and no iodinophilous vacuole is observed. Histopathological analysis showed that the plasmodia embedded in the gill filaments and occasionally extended into the connective tissue of the gill arch. No significant inflammatory responses were provoked by the infection. The development of parasite is asynchronous, with mature spores centrally locating and trophozoites and pre-sporogonic stages peripherally locating within the plasmodia. Overall prevalence was 74 % (37/50). Infection intensity was usually high, with about 10–30 cysts per fish. Phylogenetical analysis shows that T. wangi n. sp. is most closely related to several Thelohanellus species infecting cyprinid fish and formed a Thelohanellus clade based on the ribosomal DNA data. The cysts of this myxosporean were only found from fry seed with body length below 7 cm, generally from late April to early June when the fry fish of allogynogenetic gibel carp were nursed in the epizootic areas.
KeywordsThelohanellus wangi n. sp. Allogynogenetic gibel carp Histopathology Morphology Phylogeny
The present work was financially supported by the Jiangsu Province Fund of Sciences (BK2012240, BK2011182), Special Fund for Basic Scientific Research of Central Institutes, FFRC (6-115080), Young Scientist Award of the Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Huai’an Science and Technology Bureau (SN12099, SN13095).
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