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Parasitology Research

, Volume 113, Issue 4, pp 1435–1449 | Cite as

Ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal properties of Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) (Family: Asparagaceae) root extracts against filariasis (Culex quinquefasciatus), dengue (Aedes aegypti) and malaria (Anopheles stephensi) vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

  • Marimuthu GovindarajanEmail author
  • Rajamohan Sivakumar
Original Paper

Abstract

Several diseases are associated to the mosquito–human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The present investigation was undertaken to study the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extracts of root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of Asparagus racemosus against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi exerted 100 % mortality (zero hatchability) at 375, 300 and 225 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed 99–100 % hatchability. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of root of Asparagus racemosus against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi with the LC50 and LC90 values were 115.13, 97.71 and 90.97 ppm and 210.96, 179.92, and 168.82 ppm, respectively. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in methanol extract against Anopheles stephensi followed by Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus with the LD50 and LD90 values were 120.44, 135.60, and 157.71 ppm and 214.65, 248.35, and 290.95 ppm, respectively. No mortality was recorded in the control. The finding of the present investigation revealed that the root extract of Asparagus racemosus possess remarkable ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activity against medically important vector mosquitoes and this is the low cost and ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activities of the reported Asparagus racemosus root.

Keywords

Methanol Extract Larvicidal Activity Petroleum Ether Extract Anopheles Stephensi Repellent Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR Ref. Letter No. 5/8-7 (246)/2012-ECD-II), New Delhi, India, for providing financial assistance and the authors would like to thank Dr. N. Indra, Professor and Head of the Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, for the laboratory facilities provided. The authors would also like to acknowledge the cooperation of staff members of the VCRC (ICMR), Pondicherry.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Unit of Vector Biology and Phytochemistry, Department of ZoologyAnnamalai UniversityAnnamalai NagarIndia

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