Parasitology Research

, Volume 113, Issue 2, pp 777–791 | Cite as

Larvicidal, ovicidal, and adulticidal efficacy of Erythrina indica (Lam.) (Family: Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

  • Marimuthu GovindarajanEmail author
  • Rajamohan Sivakumar
Original Paper


Mosquitoes are the major vector for the transmission of malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, filariasis, schistosomiasis, and Japanese encephalitis. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal, ovicidal, and adulticidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Erythrina indica against the medically important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of E. indica against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values of 69.43, 75.13, and 91.41 ppm and 125.49, 134.31, and 167.14 ppm, respectively. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of E. indica against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus exerted 100 % mortality (zero hatchability) at 150, 200, and 250 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed above 99.3–100 % hatchability. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in methanol extract against A. stephensi followed by A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus with the LD50 and LD90 values of 88.76, 94.09, and 119.64 ppm and 160.83, 169.01, and 219.77 ppm, respectively. No mortality was recorded in the control. Our data suggest that the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts of E. indica have the potential to be used as an eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus.


Methanol Extract Leaf Extract Lymphatic Filariasis Larvicidal Activity Petroleum Ether Extract 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors are grateful to the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR ref. letter no. 5/8-7(246)/2012-ECD-II), New Delhi, India for providing financial assistance and would like to thank Dr. N. Indra, Professor and Head of the Department of Zoology, Annamalai University for the laboratory facilities provided. The authors would also like to acknowledge the cooperation of staff members of the VCRC (ICMR), Pondicherry.


  1. Akhtar Y, Isman MB (2004) Generalization of a habituated feeding deterrent response to unrelated antifeedants following prolonged exposure in a generalist herbivore, Trichoplusia ni. J Chem Ecol 30(7):1349–1362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amer A, Mehlhorn H (2006a) Larvicidal effects of various essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 99:466–472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amer A, Mehlhorn H (2006b) Repellency effect of forty-one essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex mosquitoes. Parasitol Res 99:478–490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amerasan D, Murugan K, Kovendan K, Mahesh Kumar P, Panneerselvam C, Subramaniam J, John William S, Hwang JS (2012) Adulticidal and repellent properties of Cassia tora Linn. (Family: Caesalpinaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. Parasitol Res 111(5):1953–1964PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ashraful Alam M, Rowshanul Habib M, Nikkon F, Khalequzzaman M, Rezaul Karim M (2009) Insecticidal activity of root bark of Calotropis gigantea L. against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). World J Zool 4(2):90–95Google Scholar
  6. Babu R, Murugan K (2000) Larvicidal effect of resinous exudate from the tender leaves of Azadirachta indica. Neem Newsl 17:3Google Scholar
  7. Bagavan A, Rahuman AA, Kamaraj C, Geetha K (2008) Larvicidal activity of saponin from Achyranthes aspera against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 103:223–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bansal SK, Karam Singh V, Kumar S (2009a) Larvicidal activity of the extracts from different parts of the plant Solanum xanthocarpum against important mosquito vectors in the arid region. J Environ Biol 30:221–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bansal SK, Karam V, Singh SMRK (2009b) Evaluation of larvicidal efficacy of Solanum xanthocarpum storage against vector mosquitoes in north-western Rajasthan. J Environ Biol 30(5):883–888PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bernhard L, Bernhard P, Magnusson P (2003) Management of patients with lymphoedema caused by filariasis in North-eastern Tanzania: alternative approaches. Physiotherapy 89:743–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Breman JG, Martin AS, Mills A (2004) Conquering the intolerable burden of malaria: what’s new, what’s needed: a summary. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71(2):1–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Burfield T, Reekie SL (2005) Mosquitoes, malaria and essential oils. Int J Aromather 15:30–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cetin H, Erler F, Yanikoglu A (2004) Larvicidal activity of a botanical natural product, AkseBio2, against Culex pipiens. Fitoterapia 75:724–728PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cetin H, Cinbilgel I, Yanikoglu A, Gokceoglu M (2006) Larvicidal activity of some Labiatae (Lamiaceae) plant extracts from Turkey. Phytother Res 20(12):1088–1090PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chansang U, Zahiri NS, Bansiddhi J, Boonruad T, Thongsrirak P, Mingmuang J, Benjapong N, Mulla MS (2005) Mosquito larvicidal activity of aqueous extracts of long pepper (Piper retrofractum Vahl) from Thailand. J Vector Ecol 30(2):195–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Elango G, Rahuman AA, Bagavan A, Kamaraj C, Zahir AA, Venkatesan C (2009) Laboratory study on larvicidal activity of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Parasitol Res 104(6):1381–1388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Finney DJ (1971) Probit analysis. Cambridge University Press, London, pp 68–78Google Scholar
  18. Govindarajan M (2010a) Larvicidal and repellent activities of Sida acuta Burm. F. (Family: Malvaceae) against three important vector mosquitoes. Asian Pac J Trop Med 3(9):691–695Google Scholar
  19. Govindarajan M (2010b) Larvicidal efficacy of Ficus benghalensis L. plant leaf extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Aedes aegypti L. and Anopheles stephensi L. (Diptera: Cilicidae). Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 14:107–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Govindarajan M, Jebanesan A, Pushpanathan T (2008a) Larvicidal and ovicidal activity of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract against filarial and malarial vector mosquitoes. Parasitol Res 102(2):289–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Govindarajan M, Jebanesan A, Pushpanathan T, Samidurai K (2008b) Studies on effect of Acalypha indica L. (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extracts on the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 103(3):691–695PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Govindarajan M (2011) Larvicidal and repellent properties of some essential oils against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles and Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). Asian Pac J Trop Med 4(2):106–111Google Scholar
  23. Harve G, Kamath V (2004) Larvicidal activity of plant extracts used alone and in combination with known synthetic larvicidal agents against Aedes aegypti. Indian J Exp Biol 42(12):1216–1219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Honorio NA, Da Silva WC, Leite PJ, Gonçalves JM, Lounibos LP, Lourenço-de-Oliveira R (2003) Dispersal of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in an urban endemic dengue area in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Brazil Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 98:191–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) Bulletin (2003) Prospects of using herbal products in the control of mosquito vectors. ICMR Bulletin 33(1): 1-10Google Scholar
  26. Kalyanasundaram M, Dos PK (1985) Larvicidal and synergistic activity of plant extracts for mosquito control. Indian J Med Res 82:1–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Kannathasan K, Senthilkumar A, Chandrasekaran M, Venkatesalu V (2007) Differential larvicidal efficacy of four species of Vitex against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Parasitol Res 101(6):1721–1723PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Karmegam N, Sakthivadivel M, Anuradha V, Daniel T (1997) Indigenous-plant extracts as larvicidal agents against Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Bioresour Technol 59(2–3):137–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Katade SR, Pawar PV, Tungikar VB, Tambe AS, Kalal KM, Wakharkar RD, Deshpande NR (2006) Larvicidal activity of bis (2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate from Sterculia guttata seeds against two mosquito species. Chem Biodivers 3(1):49–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Khanna VG, Kannabiran K, Rajakumar G, Rahuman AA, Santhoshkumar T (2011) Biolarvicidal compound gymnemagenol isolated from leaf extract of miracle fruit plant, Gymnema sylvestre (Retz) Schult against malaria and filariasis vectors. Parasitol Res 109(5):1373–1386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Komalamisra N, Trongtokit Y, Rongsriyam Y, Apiwathnasorn C (2005) Screening for larvicidal activity in some Thai plants against four mosquito vector species. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 36(6):1412–1422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Kovendan K, Murugan K, Panneerselvam C, Mahesh Kumar P, Amerasan D, Subramaniam J, Vincent S, Barnard DR (2012) Laboratory and field evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 110(6):2105–2115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lee SE (2000) Mosquito larvicidal activity of pipernonaline, a piperidine alkaloid derived from long pepper, Piper longum. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 16:245–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Liu SQ, Shi Cao JJ, Jia H, Liu FB, XQ, Shi GL (2000) Survey of pesticidal component in plant. In Entomology in China in 21st Century, Proceedings of 2000 Conference of Chinese Entomological Society ed . Science & Technique Press. 1098–1104Google Scholar
  35. Liu H, Xu Q, Zhang L, Liu N (2005) Chlorpyrifos resistance in mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. J Med Entomol 42(5):815–820PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Macleod JK, Moeller PDR, Molinski TF, Koul O (1990) Antifeedant activity against Spodoptera litura larvae and [13C] NMR spectral assignments of the meliatoxins. J Chem Ecol 16:2511–2518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mahesh Kumar P, Murugan K, Kovendan K, Subramaniam J, Amerasan D (2012) Mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal efficacy of Solanum xanthocarpum (Family: Solanaceae) leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis, against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 110(6):2541–2550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Maheswaran R, Sathis S, Ignacimuthu S (2008) Larvicidal activity of Leucus aspera (Willd.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. and Aedes aegypti. Int J Biol 2(3):214–217Google Scholar
  39. Mathew N, Anitha MG, Bala TS, Sivakumar SM, Narmadha R, Kalyanasundaram M (2009) Larvicidal activity of Saraca indica, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, and Clitoria ternatea extracts against three mosquito vector species. Parasitol Res 104:1017–1025PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mittal PK, Adak T, Subbarao SK (2005) Inheritance of resistance to Bacillus sphaericus toxins in a laboratory selected strain of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) and its response to Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis. Curr Sci 89:442–443Google Scholar
  41. Mohan L, Sharma P, Srivastava CN (2005) Evaluation of Solanum xanthocarpum extracts as mosquito larvicides. J Environ Biol 26(2):399–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Moretti MD, Sanna-Passino G, Demontis S, Bazzoni E (2002) Essential oil formulations useful as a new tool for insect pest control. AAPS Pharm Sci Tech 3:E13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Muir LE, Kay BH (1998) Aedes aegypti survival and dispersal estimated by mark–release–recapture in northern Australia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 58:277–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Mullai K, Jebanesan A, Pushpanathan T (2008) Effect of bioactive fractions of Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. leaf extract against Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. Parasitol Res 102(5):951–955PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Murugan K, Jeyabalan D (1999) Mosquitocidal effect of certain plants extracts on Anopheles stephensi. Curr Sci 76:631–633Google Scholar
  46. Murugan K, Vahitha R, Baruah I, Das SC (2003) Integration of botanicals and microbial pesticides for the control of filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. Ann Med Entomol 12(1&2):11–23Google Scholar
  47. Muthukrishnan J, Puspalatha E (2001) Effects of plant extracts on fecundity and fertility of mosquitoes. J Appl Entomol 125:31–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. National Institute of Communicable Diseases (NICD) (1990) Proceedings of the National Seminar on operation research on vector control in filariasis. New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  49. Ndung’u MW, Kaoneka B, Hassanali A, Lwande W, Hooper AM, Tayman F, Zerbe O, Torto B (2004) New mosquito larvicidal tetranortriterpenoids from Turraea wakefieldii and Turraea floribunda. J Agric Food Chem 52:5027–5031PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Omena MCD, Bento ES, De Paula JE, Sant’Ana AE (2006) Larvicidal diterpenes from Pterodon polygalaeflorus. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 6:216–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ouda NAA, Al-chalabi BBM, Al-charchafchi FFMR, Mohsen ZZH (1998) Extract of Atriple canescens against Culex quinquefasciatus. Pharm Biol 36(1):69–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Park IK, Shin SC, Kim CS, Lee HJ, Choi WS, Ahn YJ (2005) Larvicidal activity of lignans identified in Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica roots against three mosquito species. J Agric Food Chem 53:969–972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Peng Z, Beckett AN, Engler RJ, Hoffman DR, Ott NL, Simons FER (2004) Immune responses to mosquito saliva in 14 individuals with acute systemic allergic reactions to mosquito bites. J Allergy Clin Immunol 114:1189–1194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pitasawat B, ChoochoteW TB, Tippawangkosol P, Kanjanapothi D, Jitpakdi A, Riyong D (2003) Repellency of aromatic turmeric Curcuma aromatica under laboratory and field conditions. J Vector Ecol 28(2):234–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Prabakar K, Jebanesan A (2004) Larvicidal efficacy of some Cucurbitacious plant leaf extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). Bioresour Technol 95(1):113–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Prophiro JS, da Silva MAN, Kanis LA, da Rocha LCBP, Duque-Luna JE, da Silva OS (2012) First report on susceptibility of wild Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) using Carapa guianensis (Meliaceae) and Copaifera sp. (Leguminosae). Parasitol Res 110:699–705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Pushpanathan T, Jebanesan A, Govindarajan M (2006) Larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent activities of Cymbopogan citrates Stapf (Graminae) essential oil against the filarial mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae). Trop Biomed 23(2):208–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Rahuman AA, Venktesan P (2008) Larvicidal efficacy of five cucurbitaceous plant leaf extracts against mosquito species. Parasitol Res 103:133–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rahuman AA, Gopalakrishnan G, Venkatesan P, Geetha K (2008) Larvicidal activity of some Euphorbiaceae plant extracts against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 102:867–873PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rajkumar S, Jebanesan A (2009) Larvicidal and oviposition activity of Cassia obtusifolia Linn (Family: Leguminosae) leaf extract against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 104(2):337–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Samidurai K, Jebanesan A, Saravanakumar A, Govindarajan M, Pushpanathan T (2009) Larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent activities of Pemphis acidula Forst. (Lythraceae) against filarial and dengue vector mosquitoes. Acad J Entomol 2(2):62–66Google Scholar
  62. Santhoshkumar T, Rahuman AA, Rajakumar G, Marimuthu S, Bagavan A, Jayaseelan C, Zahir AA, Elango G, Kamaraj C (2011) Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract and its larvicidal activity against malaria and filariasis vectors. Parasitol Res 10:2115–2124Google Scholar
  63. Shaalan EA, Canyon DV, Younes MW, Abdel-Wahab H, Mansour AH (2006) Efficacy of eight larvicidal botanical extracts from Khaya saenegalensis and Daucus carota against Culex annulirostris. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 22:433–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sharma P, Mohan L, Srivastava CN (2005) Larvicidal potential of Nerium indicum and Thuja oriertelis extracts against malaria and Japanese encephalitis vector. J Environ Biol 26(4):657–660PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Shigeo K, Tenji K, Murugan K (2004) Larvicidal effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel extracts against Paratanyarsus grimmii (Diptera: Chironomidae) and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). Med Entomol Zool 55(3):247–250Google Scholar
  66. Siddiqui BS, Afshan F, Faizi S, Naqvi SNH, Tariq RM (2002) Two new triterpenoids from Azadirachta indica and their insecticidal activity. J Nat Prod 65:1216–1218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Siddiqui BS, Afshan F, Gulzar T, Sultana R, Naqvi SN, Tariq RM (2003) Tetracyclic triterpenoids from the leaves of Azadirachta indica and their insecticidal activities. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 51:415–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Siddiqui BS, Gulzar T, Mahmood A, Begum S, Khan B, Afshan F (2004) New insecticidal amides from petroleum ether extract of dried Piper nigrum L. whole fruits. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 52:1349–1352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Singh NP, Kumari V, Chauhan D (2003) Mosquito larvicidal properties of the leaf extract of a herbaceous plant, Ocimum canum (Family: Labitae). J Commun Dis 35(1):43–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Sivagnaname N, Kalyanasundaram M (2004) Laboratory evaluation of methanolic extract of Atlantia monophylla (Family: Rutaceae) against immature stages of mosquitoes and non-target organisms. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Rio de Jenerio 99(1):115–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Snow RW, Guerra CA, Noor AM, Myint HY, Hay SI (2005) The global distribution of clinical episodes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Nature 434(7030):214–217PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Su T, Mulla MS (1998) Ovicidal activity of neem products (Azadirachtin) against Culex tarsalis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). J Am Mosq Control Assoc 14:204–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Traboulsi AF, Taoubi K, El-Haj S, Bessiere JM, Rammal S (2002) Insecticidal properties of essential plant oils against the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae). Pest Manag Sci 58:491–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Traboulsi AF, El-Haj S, Tueni M, Taoubi K, Nader NB, Mrad A (2005) Repellency and toxicity of aromatic plant extracts against the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae). Pest Manag Sci 61:597–604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tyagi BK, Ramnath T, Shahi AK (1994) Evaluation of repellency effect of Tagetus minuta (Family: Compositae) against the vector mosquitoes Anopheles stephensi Liston, Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti L. Int Pest Contr 39:48Google Scholar
  76. Vahitha R, Venkatachalam MR, Murugan K, Jebanesan A (2002) Larvicidal efficacy of Pavonia zeylanica L. and Acacia feruginea D.C. against Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Bioresour Technol 82:203–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Vatandoost H, Vaziri VM (2004) Larvicidal activity of a neem tree extract (Neemarin) against mosquito larvae in the Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J 10:573–581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Verma GS, Ramakrishnan V, Mulchandani NB, Chadha MS (1986) Insect feeding deterrents from the medicinal plant Tylophora asthmatica. Entomol Exp Appl 40:99–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wattanachai P, Tintanon B (1999) Resistance of Aedes aegypti to chemical compounds in aerosol insecticide products in different areas of Bangkok, Thailand. J Commun Dis 25:188–191Google Scholar
  80. Wheeler DA, Isman MB (2001) Antifeedant and toxic activity of Trichilia americana extract against the larvae of Spodoptera litura. Entomol Exp Appl 98:9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. WHO (1992) Lymphatic filariasis: the disease and its control. 5th report. Who Expert Committee on Filariasis. Technical Report Series. p 821Google Scholar
  82. World Health Organization (1981) Instruction for determining the susceptibility or resistance of adult mosquitoes to organochlorine, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. WHO/VBC/81.806Google Scholar
  83. World Health Organization (2005) Guidelines for laboratory and field testing of mosquito larvicides. Communicable disease control, prevention and eradication, WHO pesticide evaluation scheme. WHO, Geneva, WHO/CDS/WHOPES/GCDPP/1.3Google Scholar
  84. Yadav R, Srivastava VK, Chandra R, Singh A (2002) Larvicidal activity of latex and stem bark of Euphorbia tirucalli plant on the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. J Commun Dis 34(4):264–269PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Unit of Vector Biology and Phytochemistry, Department of ZoologyAnnamalai UniversityAnnamalai NagarIndia

Personalised recommendations