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Parasitology Research

, Volume 113, Issue 2, pp 777–791 | Cite as

Larvicidal, ovicidal, and adulticidal efficacy of Erythrina indica (Lam.) (Family: Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

  • Marimuthu GovindarajanEmail author
  • Rajamohan Sivakumar
Original Paper

Abstract

Mosquitoes are the major vector for the transmission of malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, filariasis, schistosomiasis, and Japanese encephalitis. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal, ovicidal, and adulticidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Erythrina indica against the medically important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of E. indica against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values of 69.43, 75.13, and 91.41 ppm and 125.49, 134.31, and 167.14 ppm, respectively. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of E. indica against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus exerted 100 % mortality (zero hatchability) at 150, 200, and 250 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed above 99.3–100 % hatchability. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in methanol extract against A. stephensi followed by A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus with the LD50 and LD90 values of 88.76, 94.09, and 119.64 ppm and 160.83, 169.01, and 219.77 ppm, respectively. No mortality was recorded in the control. Our data suggest that the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts of E. indica have the potential to be used as an eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus.

Keywords

Methanol Extract Leaf Extract Lymphatic Filariasis Larvicidal Activity Petroleum Ether Extract 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR ref. letter no. 5/8-7(246)/2012-ECD-II), New Delhi, India for providing financial assistance and would like to thank Dr. N. Indra, Professor and Head of the Department of Zoology, Annamalai University for the laboratory facilities provided. The authors would also like to acknowledge the cooperation of staff members of the VCRC (ICMR), Pondicherry.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Unit of Vector Biology and Phytochemistry, Department of ZoologyAnnamalai UniversityAnnamalai NagarIndia

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