Analysis of Glossina palpalis gambiensis and Glossina tachinoides from two distant locations in Burkina Faso using MALDI TOF MS
- 196 Downloads
Riverine tsetse (Glossina) as Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank 1949 and Glossina tachinoides Westwood 1850 are the main vectors for African animal trypanosomoses in Burkina Faso. Vector control has been proven efficient in disease containment, but its success is endangered by the reinvasion of tsetse from neighbouring areas. Thus, identifying relic populations can enhance the success rate of vector control efforts. This is currently carried out through microsatellite analysis which is time-consuming and costly. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based analysis has become a routine method in microbial species identification. Owing to the rapidness and cost-effectiveness, this approach has been extended towards species identification of higher organisms such as tsetse. Following the recent experiences in distinguishing two genotypes of Prototheca spp., it is of interest to explore the validity of mass spectrometry for tsetse population differentiation. As a preliminary test, we submitted male and female G. palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides from Sideradougou and Folonzo, Burkina Faso (distance 60 km) to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation analysis. The wing samples were utilized for protein extraction and mass spectra in a broad mass to charge ratio (2,000–20,000 kDa) were obtained. Specific peaks appeared to represent species, sex and location. Then, a peak list was extracted, containing the peaks in mass-to-charge ratio by revealing their intensities as well. These lists were used to compute a spectral dendrogram and a principle component analysis which displayed the differences among the samples from the two different regions. The results indicate that this technique can be extended with additional tsetse species, ideally with supporting genomic data, to later assist in designing rational vector control strategies.
KeywordsPrinciple Component Analysis Trypanosomiasis MALDI Target Plate Tsetse Population Tsetse Species
Many thanks to Jean-Baptiste Rayaisse, to the PATTEC team in Burkina Faso and to Janine Voegely who obtained the flies from the CIRDES. Furthermore, we owe thanks to Oumarou Serdebeogo for creating the map.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Hammer Ø, Harper DAT, Ryan PD (2001) PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Paleontol Electron 4:9Google Scholar
- Murugaiyan J, Ahrholdt J, Kowbel V, Roesler U (2012) Establishment of a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry database for rapid identification of infectious achlorophyllous green micro-algae of the genus Prototheca. Clin Microbiol Infect 18:461–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Potts WH (1970) Systematics and identification of Glossina George Allen and Unwin, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Solano P, Kaba D, Ravel S, Dyer NA, Sall B, Vreysen MJ, Seck MT, Darbyshir H, Gardes L, Donnelly MJ, De Meeus T, Bouyer J (2010) Population genetics as a tool to select tsetse control strategies: suppression or eradication of Glossina palpalis gambiensis in the Niayes of Senegal. PLOS Negl Trop Dis 4:e692PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Weeks ME, Sinclair J, Jacob RJ, Saxton MJ, Kirby S, Jones J, Waterfield MD, Cramer R, Timms JF (2005) Stress-induced changes in the Schizosaccharomyces pombe proteome using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and a novel integrated robotics platform. Proteomics 5:1669–1685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yssouf A, Socolovschi C, Flaudrops C, Ndiath MO, Sougoufara S, Dehecq JS, Lacour G, Berenger JM, Sokhna CS, Raoult D, Parola P (2013) Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry: an emerging tool for the rapid identification of mosquito vectors. PLOS One 8(8):e72380PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar