Parasitology Research

, Volume 113, Issue 1, pp 341–350 | Cite as

Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo and Withania somnifera against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

  • Nirbhay Kumar SinghEmail author
  • Jyoti
  • Bhaskar Vemu
  • Abhijit Nandi
  • Harkirat Singh
  • Rajender Kumar
  • V K Dumka
Original Paper


Detection of resistance levels against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, the most commonly used synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Moga, Punjab (India) was carried out using larval packet test. Results indicated the presence of resistance of level I and III against cypermethrin (resistance factors (RF) = 4.67) and deltamethrin (RF = 34.2), respectively. Adult immersion test was used to assess the acaricidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo, and Withania somnifera along with roots of V. negundo against the SP resistant engorged females of R. (B.) microplus. The efficacy of various extracts was assessed by estimation of percent adult mortality, reproductive index (RI), percent inhibition of oviposition (%IO), and hatching rate. A concentration dependent increase in tick mortality was recorded which was more marked with various ethanolic extracts, and highest mortality was recorded in ticks treated with ethanolic extract of leaves of C. winterianus. The LC50 values were determined by applying regression equation analysis to the probit transformed data of mortality for various aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Acaricidal property was recorded to be higher in ethanolic extracts, and high activity was found with the ethanolic extract of leaves of C. winterianus with LC50 (95 % CL) values of 0.46 % (0.35–0.59 %), followed by W. somnifera as 5.21 % (4.45–6.09 %) and V. negundo as 7.02 % (4.58–10.74 %). The egg mass weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the various extract was significantly (p < 0.01) lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the RI and the %IO value of the treated ticks were reduced. Further, complete inhibition of hatching was recorded in eggs laid by ticks treated with ethanolic extracts of leaves of V. negundo and aqueous extracts of leaves of W. somnifera. The results of the current study indicate that extracts of C. winterianus, V. negundo, and W. somnifera can be used for the control of SP resistant ticks.


Ethanolic Extract Cypermethrin Deltamethrin Resistance Factor Synthetic Pyrethroid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Authors are thankful to the Director of Research, GADVASU, Ludhiana for providing facilities to carry out the research work.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nirbhay Kumar Singh
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jyoti
    • 1
  • Bhaskar Vemu
    • 2
  • Abhijit Nandi
    • 1
  • Harkirat Singh
    • 1
  • Rajender Kumar
    • 3
  • V K Dumka
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Parasitology, College of Veterinary ScienceGuru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences UniversityLudhianaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Veterinary ScienceGuru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences UniversityLudhianaIndia
  3. 3.Department of AgronomyPunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia

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