Mosquitocidal essential oils: are they safe against non-target aquatic organisms?
- 459 Downloads
In latest years, the importance of the Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil (EO) has been greatly empathised due to its anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as to its toxic properties towards many arthropods of great medical and veterinary importance. In this research, the EO extracted from aerial parts of M. alternifolia was evaluated for its toxicity against larvae of the most invasive mosquito worldwide, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), and towards adults of the water flea, Daphnia magna (Cladocera: Crustacea), a non-target aquatic organism that share the same ecological niche of A. albopictus. The chemical composition of M. alternifolia EO was investigated by GC-MS analysis. Tea tree EO was mainly composed by oxygenated monoterpenes, with 1,8-cineole as the major constituent. M. alternifolia EO exerted toxic activity against A. albopictus larvae, with a LC50 = 267.130 ppm. However, this EO had a remarkable acute toxicity also towards adults of the non-target arthropod D. magna, with a LC50 = 80.636 ppm. This research provide useful information for the development of newer and safer mosquito control tools, highlighting that the non-target effects against aquatic organisms that share the same ecological niche of A. albopictus larvae are crucial in the development of ecofriendly mosquito control strategies. Further research is needed to investigate the chronic and/or reproductive toxicity of M. alternifolia EO both towards target and non-target aquatic arthropods.
KeywordsHead Louse Scrub Typhus Rift Valley Fever Water Flea Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis
We would like to thank Angelo Canale (Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa) for his insightful critical comments on an earlier version of the manuscript, Helen Romito (Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa) for proofreading, Riccardo Antonelli and Paolo Giannotti (Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa) for providing the artworks.
- Adams RP (1995) Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Allured, Carol StreamGoogle Scholar
- Altman PM (1988) Australian tea tree oil. Aust J Pharm 69:276–278Google Scholar
- Benelli G, Flamini G, Canale A, Molfetta I, Cioni PL, Conti B (2012b) Repellence of Hyptis suaveolens L. (Lamiaceae) whole essential oil and major constituents against adults of the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae). Bull Insectol 65:177–183Google Scholar
- Benelli G, Canale A, Flamini G, Cioni PL, Demi F, Ceccarini L, Macchia M, Conti B (2013b) Biotoxicity of Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae) essential oil against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), and its parasitoid Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Ind Crop Prod 50:596–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Canale A, Benelli G, Conti B, Lenzi G, Flamini G, Francini A, Cioni PL (2013) Ingestion toxicity of three Lamiaceae essential oils incorporated in protein baits against the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera Tephritidae). Nat Prod Res in pressGoogle Scholar
- Conti B, Benelli G, Leonardi M, Afifi UF, Cervelli C, Profeti R, Pistelli L, Canale A (2012b) Repellent effect of Salvia dorisiana, S. longifolia and S. sclarea (Lamiaceae) essential oils against the mosquito Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 111:291–299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Conti B, Leonardi M, Pistelli L, Profeti R, Ouerghemmi I, Benelli G (2013) Larvicidal and repellent activity of essential oils from wild and cultivated Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) against Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae), an arbovirus vector. Parasitol Res 112:991–999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Eamsobhana P, Yoolek A, Kongew W, Lerdthusnee N, Parsartvit A, Malainual N, Yong H (2009) Laboratory evaluation of aromatic essential oils from thirteen plant species as candidate repellents against Leptrombidium chiggers (Acari: Trombiculidae), the vector of scrub typhus. Exp Appl Acarol 47:257–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Giatropoulos A, Pitarokili D, Papaioannou F, Papachristos DP, Koliopoulos G, Emmanouel N, Tzakou O, Michaelakis A (2013) Essential oil composition, adult repellency and larvicidal activity of eight Cupressaceae species from Greece against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 112:1113–1123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jennings W, Shibamoto T (1980) Qualitative analysis of flavour and fragrance volatiles by glass capillary chromatography. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Masetti A, Maini S (2006) Arm in cage tests to compare skin repellents against bites of Aedes albopictus. Bull Insectol 59:157–160Google Scholar
- Massada Y (1976) Analysis of essential oils by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Noudjou F, Kouninki H, Ngamo LST, Maponmestsem PM, Ngassoum M, Hance T, Haubruge E, Malaisse F, Marlier M, Lognay GC (2007) Effect of site location and collecting period on the chemical composition of Hyptis spicigera Lam. An insecticidal essential oil from North-Cameroon. J Essent Oil Res 19:597–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sammataro D, Degrandihoffman G, Needham G, Wardell G (1998) Some volatile plant oils as potential control agents for Varroa mites (Acari, Varroidae) in honey bee colonies (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Am Bee J 138:681–685Google Scholar
- Seo SM, Park HM, Park IK (2012) Larvicidal activity of Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi) and Peru Balsam (Myroxylon pereira) oils and blends of their constituents against mosquito, Aedes aegypti, acute toxicity on water flea, Daphnia magna and aqueous residue. J Agric Food Chem 60:5909–5914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Skuse F (1894) The banded mosquito of Bengal. Indian Mus Notes 3:20Google Scholar
- Stenhagen E, Abrahamson S, McLafferty FW (1974) Registry of mass spectral data. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Swigar AA, Silverstein RM (1981) Monoterpenes. Aldrich Chem Comp, MilwaukeeGoogle Scholar
- WHO (1981) Instruction for determining the susceptibility or resistance of mosquito larvae to insecticide. WHO/VBC/81.807. Control of Trpical Diseases, World Health Organisation, GenevaGoogle Scholar