Advertisement

Parasitology Research

, Volume 112, Issue 10, pp 3537–3541 | Cite as

A rat model to study Blastocytis subtype 1 infections

  • Juan Li
  • Ting Deng
  • Xiaohua Li
  • Gaolu Cao
  • Xiaobo Li
  • Yiming Yan
Original Paper

Abstract

Blastocytis sp. is the most common enteric protozoan in human, but its pathogenesis is still unclear. To study the infectious effects of Blastocytis sp. on tissue damage, we orally challenged the Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with different doses of Blastocytis subtype1 (ST1) and examined the histological changes. We found that there was no difference of disease incidence among the Blastocytis ST1-infected groups challenged with different doses of the protozoan. Histological results showed that the lamina propria was infected by Blastocytis ST1 in the vacuolar form, along with the mucus membrane slough and inflammatory cell infiltration into the lamina propria. Compared to the uninfected group, the histological scores were significantly higher in the infected groups. However, groups infected with various doses of Blastocystis ST1 showed no difference in terms of histological scores. In conclusion, this study indicates that the SD rats can be easily infected with Blastocytis ST1 even with low dose of cysts, and the histopathological effects of the infection in the intestine of the infected rats show individual differences.

Keywords

Histopathology Change Cyst Form Sprague Dawley Infected Group Granule Form 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 30860254) and Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province of China (no. 2009GZY0003). The experiments comply with the current regulations of People’s Republic of China. Ting Deng and Xiaohua Li contributed equally to this work. The authors would like to thank Dr. Syed Ahmad Moosa, faculty of international education, Gannan Medical University, for his suggestion and critically reading the manuscript.

References

  1. Alfellani MA, Jacob AS, Perea NO, Krecek RC, Taner-Mulla D, Verweij JJ, Levecke B, Tannich E, Clark CG, Stensvold CR (2013) Diversity and distribution of Blastocystis sp. subtypes in non-human primates. Parasitology 140:966–971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Clark CG (1997) Extensive genetic diversity in Blastocystis hominis. Mol Biochem Parasitol 87:79–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dogruman-Al F, Yoshikawa H, Kustimur S, Balaban N (2009) PCR-based subtyping of Blastocystis isolates from symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals in a major hospital in Ankara, Turkey. Parasitol Res 106:263–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Elwakil HS, Hewedi IH (2010) Pathogenic potential of Blastocystis hominis in laboratory mice. Parasitol Res 107:685–689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fayer R, Santin M, Macarisin D (2012) Detection of concurrent infection of dairy cattle with Blastocystis, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon by molecular and microscopic methods. Parasitol Res 111:1349–1355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Forsell J, Granlund M, Stensvold CR, Clark CG, Evengard B (2012) Subtype analysis of Blastocystis isolates in Swedish patients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 31:1689–1696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hussein EM, Hussein AM, Eida MM, Atwa MM (2008) Pathophysiological variability of different genotypes of human Blastocystis hominis Egyptian isolates in experimentally infected rats. Parasitol Res 102:853–860PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Iguchi A, Ebisu A, Nagata S, Saitou Y, Yoshikawa H, Iwatani S, Kimata I (2007) Infectivity of different genotypes of human Blastocystis hominis isolates in chickens and rats. Parasitol Internat 56:107–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Iguchi A, Yoshikawa H, Yamada M, Kimata I, Arizono N (2009) Expression of interferon gamma and proinflammatory cytokines in the cecal mucosa of rats experimentally infected with Blastocystis sp. strain RN94-9. Parasitol Res 105:135–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Konig G, Muller HE (1997) Blastocystis hominis in animals: incidence of four serogroups. Zentralbl Bakteriol 286:435–440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Li LH, Zhang XP, Lv S, Zhang L, Yoshikawa H, Wu Z, Steinmann P, Utzinger J, Tong XM, Chen SH, Zhou XN (2007) Cross-sectional surveys and subtype classification of human Blastocystis isolates from four epidemiological settings in China. Parasitol Res 102:83–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Malatyali E, Ozcelik S (2011) Isolation of Blastocystis spp. from human hosts and in vitro determination of different morphological forms. Turkiye Parazitol Derg 35:19–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Meloni D, Poirier P, Mantini C, Noel C, Gantois N, Wawrzyniak I, Delbac F, Chabe M, Delhaes L, Dei-Cas E, Fiori PL, El Alaoui H, Viscogliosi E (2012) Mixed human intra- and inter-subtype infections with the parasite Blastocystis sp. Parasitol Int 61:719–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Moe KT, Singh M, Howe J, Ho LC, Tan SW, Chen XQ, Ng GC, Yap EH (1997) Experimental Blastocystis hominis infection in laboratory mice. Parasitol Res 83:319–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Moosavi A, Haghighi A, Mojarad EN, Zayeri F, Alebouyeh M, Khazan H, Kazemi B, Zali MR (2012) Genetic variability of Blastocystis sp. isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals in Iran. Parasitol Res 111:2311–2315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nagel R, Cuttell L, Stensvold CR, Mills PC, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Traub RJ (2012) Blastocystis subtypes in symptomatic and asymptomatic family members and pets and response to therapy. Intern Med J 42:1187–1195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Noël C, Dufernez F, Gerbod D, Edgcomb VP, Delgado-Viscogliosi P, Ho LC, Singh M, Wintjens R, Sogin ML, Capron M, Pierce R, Zenner L, Viscogliosi E (2005) Molecular phylogenies of Blastocystis isolates from different hosts: implications for genetic diversity, identification of species, and zoonosis. J Clin Microbiol 43:348–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ozyurt M, Kurt O, Molbak K, Nielsen HV, Haznedaroglu T, Stensvold CR (2008) Molecular epidemiology of Blastocystis infections in Turkey. Parasitol Int 57:300–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Parkar U, Traub RJ, Vitali S, Elliot A, Levecke B, Robertson I, Geurden T, Steele J, Drake B, Thompson RC (2010) Molecular characterization of Blastocystis isolates from zoo animals and their animal-keepers. Vet Parasitol 169:8–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Poirier P, Wawrzyniak I, Vivares CP, Delbac F, El Alaoui H (2012) New insights into Blastocystis spp.: a potential link with irritable bowel syndrome. PLoS Pathog 8:e1002545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Roberts T, Stark D, Harkness J, Ellis J (2012) Subtype distribution of Blastocystis isolates identified in a Sydney population and pathogenic potential of Blastocystis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 32:335–343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Scanlan PD (2012) Blastocystis: past pitfalls and future perspectives. Trends Parasitol 28:327–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Stensvold CR, Lewis HC, Hammerum AM, Porsbo LJ, Nielsen SS, Olsen KE, Arendrup MC, Nielsen HV, Molbak K (2009) Blastocystis: unravelling potential risk factors and clinical significance of a common but neglected parasite. Epidemiol Infect 137:1655–1663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Suresh K, Ng GC, Ramachandran NP, Ho LC, Yap EH, Singh M (1993) In vitro encystment and experimental infections of Blastocystis hominis. Parasitol Res 79:456–460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tan KS (2004) Blastocystis in humans and animals: new insights using modern methodologies. Vet Parasitol 126:121–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tan KS (2008) New insights on classification, identification, and clinical relevance of Blastocystis spp. Clin Microbiol Rev 21:639–665PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tan KS, Singh M, Yap EH (2002) Recent advances in Blastocystis hominis research: hot spots in terra incognita. Int J Parasitol 32:789–804PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tan TC, Tan PC, Sharma R, Sugnaseelan S, Suresh KG (2013) Genetic diversity of caprine Blastocystis from Peninsular Malaysia. Parasitol Res 112:85–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Teow WL, Ng GC, Chan PP, Chan YC, Yap EH, Zaman V, Singh M (1992) A survey of Blastocystis in reptiles. Parasitol Res 78:453–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Windsor JJ, Macfarlane L, Hughes-Thapa G, Jones SK, Whiteside TM (2002) Incidence of Blastocystis hominis in faecal samples submitted for routine microbiological analysis. Br J Biomed Sci 59:154–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Yan Y, Su S, Lai R, Liao H, Ye J, Li X, Luo X, Chen G (2006) Genetic variability of Blastocystis hominis isolates in China. Parasitol Res 99:597–601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Yoshikawa H, Yoshida K, Nakajima A, Yamanari K, Iwatani S, Kimata I (2004) Fecal-oral transmission of the cyst form of Blastocystis hominis in rats. Parasitol Res 94:391–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zaman V, Howe J, Ng M (1995) Ultrastructure of Blastocystis hominis cysts. Parasitol Res 81:465–469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zhang X, Zhang S, Qiao J, Wu X, Zhao L, Liu Y, Fan X (2012) Ultrastructural insights into morphology and reproductive mode of Blastocystis hominis. Parasitol Res 110:1165–1172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juan Li
    • 1
  • Ting Deng
    • 2
  • Xiaohua Li
    • 1
  • Gaolu Cao
    • 1
  • Xiaobo Li
    • 3
  • Yiming Yan
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and ParasitologyGannan Medical UniversityGanzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of Histology and EmbryologyGannan Medical UniversityGanzhouChina
  3. 3.Department of Preventive MedicineGannan Medical UniversityGanzhouChina
  4. 4.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyGannan Medical UniversityGanzhouChina

Personalised recommendations