Sensory organs of the antenna of two Fannia species (Diptera: Fanniidae)
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The latrine fly (Fannia scalaris) and lesser house fly (Fannia canicularis) are ubiquitous fanniid species of forensic and medical importance. The external morphology of sensilla on the antennae is studied using a stereoscopic microscope and scanning electron microscope, and the internal structure of the antennae is revealed by paraffin sections under the light microscope and laser scanning confocal microscope. Only grooved bristles are found on the scape and pedicel. Four major types of surface sensilla are found on the antennal funiculus and are classified as: (a) trichoid sensilla, (b) two subtypes of basiconic sensilla, (c) clavate sensilla, and (d) coeloconic sensilla. Density of each sensilla type of the two species is calculated. A remarkable difference is observed that the higher density of clavate sensilla occurs on the posteroventral surface in F. scalaris, whereas they are on the anterodorsal surface in F. canicularis. Several cuticular depressions that were previously known as “olfactory pits” are observed on the funiculus of both species. Combining with previous studies, they are suggested to be classified into two types: pit and sacculus. Pit is single-chambered and filled with one type of sensilla, whereas the sacculus is a multi-chambered pit organ containing several types of sensilla. Surprisingly, the pits observed in our study are mostly situated at the lateral region of the antennal funiculus, whereas in other flies, they are found on the posteroventral or anterodorsal surface of antennal funiculus. In addition, the sacculus found in our study houses only basiconic-like sensilla, which is remarkably different from other findings. Moreover, observation under light microscope indicates that previous data of the complexity and the number of the “olfactory pits,” which are an important type of efficient sensory convergence, could be underestimated. Thus, more precise methods such as paraffin section or transmission electron microscope are suggested for further study.
KeywordsOlfactory Organ Myiasis Basiconic Sensilla Sensilla Type Trichoid Sensilla
We are grateful to Dr. Meiqin Liu and Mrs. Hui Zhang (Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China) for their invaluable help with this study. We also thank Ms. April Gloury (University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia) for her assistance in proofreading of the manuscript. This study was supported by the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (no. NCET-12-0783), the National Nature Science Foundation of China (no. 31201741), and the Chinese Postdoctoral Science Foundation (no. CPSF-20100470009, no. SFG-201104059).
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