Parasitology Research

, Volume 112, Issue 3, pp 1247–1254

Description of fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in experimentally challenged dairy calves

  • Jennifer A. Zambriski
  • Daryl V. Nydam
  • Dwight D. Bowman
  • Mary L. Bellosa
  • Alexandra J. Burton
  • Thomas C. Linden
  • Janice L. Liotta
  • Theresa L. Ollivett
  • Leonardo Tondello-Martins
  • Hussni O. Mohammed
Original Paper

Abstract

The objective was to describe the probability of Cryptosporidium parvum fecal oocyst shedding at different magnitudes of exposure, the pattern of fecal shedding over time, and factors affecting fecal shedding in dairy calves. Within the first 24 h of life, 36 calves were experimentally challenged with C. parvum oocysts at one of four possible magnitudes of oral exposure (1 × 103, 1 × 104, 1 × 105, and 1 × 106 oocysts), and 7 control calves were sham dosed. Fecal shedding occurred in 33 (91.7 %) experimentally challenged calves and in none of the control calves. There was a difference in the log-total number of oocysts counted per gram of feces dry weight among the four exposure groups; calves with the lowest magnitude of exposure (1 × 103 oocysts) shed less than the other three groups. At higher magnitudes of exposure, there was more variability in the range of fecal oocyst shedding. There was an inverse relationship between the log-total amount of oocysts counted per gram of feces dry weight and the number of days to the onset of fecal shedding per calf, i.e., the more time that elapsed to the onset of fecal shedding, the fewer oocysts that were shed. The pattern of fecal shedding over time for all calves shedding oocysts was curvilinear; the number of oocysts increased with time, reached a peak, and declined. Therefore, the dynamics of oocyst shedding can be influenced in part by limiting exposure among calves and delaying the onset of fecal oocyst shedding.

References

  1. Amadi B, Mwiya M, Musuku J, Watuka A, Sianongo S, Ayoub A, Kelly P (2002) Effect of nitazoxanide on morbidity and mortality in Zambian children with cryptosporidiosis: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 360:1375–1380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson BC (1998) Cryptosporidiosis in bovine and human health. J Dairy Sci 81:3036–3041PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson VR, Curran MP (2007) Nitazoxanide: a review of its use in the treatment of gastrointestinal infections. Drugs 67:1947–1967PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anguish LJ, Ghiorse WC (1997) Computer-assisted laser scanning and video microscopy for analysis of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil, sediment, and feces. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:724–733Google Scholar
  5. Bellosa ML, Nydam DV, Liotta JL, Zambriski JA, Linden TC, Bowman DD (2011) A comparison of fecal percent dry matter and number of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts shed to observational fecal consistency scoring in dairy calves. J Parasitol 97:349–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Campbell AT, Robertson LJ, Smith HV (1992) Viability of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts: correlation of in vitro excystation with inclusion or exclusion of fluorogenic vital dyes. Appl Environ Microbiol 58:3488–3493Google Scholar
  7. Chappell CL, Okhuysen PC, Langer-Curry R, Widmer G, Akiyoshi DE, Tanriverdi S, Tzipori S (2006) Cryptosporidium hominis: experimental challenge of healthy adults. AmJTrop Med Hyg 75:851–857Google Scholar
  8. de Graaf DC, Vanopdenbosch E, Ortega-Mora LM, Abbassi H, Peeters JE (1999) A review of the importance of cryptosporidiosis in farm animals. Int J Parasitol 29:1269–1287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. DuPont HL, Chappell CL, Sterling CR, Okhuysen PC, Rose JB, Jakubowski W (1995) The infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum in healthy volunteers. N Engl J Med 332:855–859PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fayer R, Santin M, Trout JM (2007) Prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in mature dairy cattle on farms in eastern United States compared with younger cattle from the same locations. Vet Parasitol 145:260–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fayer R (2004) Cryptosporidium: a water-borne zoonotic parasite. Vet Parasitol 126:37–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Feltus DC, Giddings CW, Schneck BL, Monson T, Warshauer D, McEvoy JM (2006) Evidence supporting zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. in Wisconsin. J Clin Microbiol 44:4303–4308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Graczyk Z, Chomicz L, Kozlowska M, Kazimierczuk Z, Graczyk TK (2011) Novel and promising compounds to treat Cryptosporidium parvum infections. Parasitol Res 109:591–594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Harp JA, Goff JP (1998) Strategies for the control of Cryptosporidium parvum infection in calves. J Dairy Sci 81:289–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jarvie BD, Trotz-Williams LA, McKnight DR, Leslie KE, Wallace MM, Todd CG, Sharpe PH, Peregrine AS (2005) Effect of halofuginone lactate on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium parvum and growth of neonatal dairy calves. J Dairy Sci 88:1801–1806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jenkins MB, Anguish LJ, Bowman DD, Walker MJ, Ghiorse WC (1997) Assessment of a dye permeability assay for determination of inactivation rates of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:3844–3850Google Scholar
  17. Jenkins MB, Walker MJ, Bowman DD, Anthony LC, Ghiorse WC (1999) Use of a sentinel system for field measurements of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst inactivation in soil and animal waste. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:1998–2005PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Jiang J, Alderisio KA, Xiao L (2005) Distribution of Cryptosporidium genotypes in storm event water samples from three watersheds in New York. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:4446–4454Google Scholar
  19. Kaplan EL, Meier P (1958) Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observations. J Am Stat Assoc 53(282):457–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lefay D, Naciri M, Poirier P, Chermette R (2001) Efficacy of halofuginone lactate in the prevention of cryptosporidiosis in suckling calves. Vet Rec 148:108–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lindsay DS, Upton SJ, Owens DS, Morgan UM, Mead JR, Blagburn BL (2000) Cryptosporidium andersoni n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporiidae) from cattle, Bos taurus. J Eukaryot Microbiol 47:91–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. MacKenzie WR, Schell WL, Blair KA, Addiss DG, Peterson DE, Hoxie NJ, Kazmierczak JJ, Davis JP (1995) Massive outbreak of waterborne Cryptosporidium infection in Milwaukee, Wisconsin: recurrence of illness and risk of secondary transmission. Clin Infect Dis 21:57–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mead JR (2002) Cryptosporidiosis and the challenges of chemotherapy. Drug Resist Updat 5:47–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Moore DA, Atwill ER, Kirk JH, Brahmbhatt D, Herrera Alonso L, Hou L, Singer MD, Miller TD (2003) Prophylactic use of decoquinate for infections with Cryptosporidium parvum in experimentally challenged neonatal calves. J Am Vet Med Assoc 223:839–845PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mor SM, Tzipori S (2008) Cryptosporidiosis in children in Sub-Saharan Africa: a lingering challenge. Clin Infect Dis 47:915–921PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Morgan-Ryan UM, Fall A, Ward LA, Hijjawi N, Sulaiman I, Fayer R, Thompson RC, Olson M, Lal A, Xiao L (2002) Cryptosporidium hominis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from Homo sapiens. J Eukaryot Microbiol 49:433–440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nydam DV, Wade SE, Schaaf SL, Mohammed HO (2001) Number of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts or Giardia spp cysts shed by dairy calves after natural infection. Am J Vet Res 62:1612–1615PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. O’Handley RM, Cockwill C, McAllister TA, Jelinski M, Morck DW, Olson ME (1999) Duration of naturally acquired giardiosis and cryptosporidiosis in dairy calves and their association with diarrhea. J Am Vet Med Assoc 214:391–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Ollivett TL, Nydam DV, Bowman DD, Zambriski JA, Bellosa ML, Linden TC, Divers TJ (2009) Effect of nitazoxanide on cryptosporidiosis in experimentally infected neonatal dairy calves. J Dairy Sci 92:1643–1648PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Robinson G, Thomas AL, Daniel RG, Hadfield SJ, Elwin K, Chalmers RM (2006) Sample prevalence and molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium andersoni within a dairy herd in the United Kingdom. Vet Parasitol 142:163–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Santin M, Trout JM, Xiao L, Zhou L, Greiner E, Fayer R (2004) Prevalence and age-related variation of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in dairy calves. Vet Parasitol 122:103–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. SAS Institute Inc. (1989–2007) JMP. 7.0Google Scholar
  33. Trotz-Williams LA, Martin DS, Gatei W, Cama V, Peregrine AS, Martin SW, Nydam DV, Jamieson F, Xiao L (2006) Genotype and subtype analyses of Cryptosporidium isolates from dairy calves and humans in Ontario. Parasitol Res 99:346–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Trotz-Williams LA, Wayne Martin S, Leslie KE, Duffield T, Nydam DV, Peregrine AS (2007) Calf level risk factors for neonatal diarrhea and shedding of Cryptosporidium parvum in Ontario dairy calves. Prev Vet Med 82:12–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Waltner-Toews D, Martin SW, Meek AH (1986) The effect of early calfhood health status on survivorship and age at first calving. Can J Vet Res 50:314–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Warnick LD, Erb HN, White ME (1995) Lack of association between calf morbidity and subsequent first lactation milk production in 25 New York Holstein herds. J Dairy Sci 78:2819–2830PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Xiao L, Feng Y (2008) Zoonotic cryptosporidiosis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 52:309–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Xiao L, Herd RP (1994) Infection pattern of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in calves. Vet Parasitol 55:257–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Xiao L, Herd RP (1993) Quantitation of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in fecal samples by direct immunofluorescence assay. J Clin Microbiol 31:2944–2946PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer A. Zambriski
    • 1
  • Daryl V. Nydam
    • 2
  • Dwight D. Bowman
    • 3
  • Mary L. Bellosa
    • 4
  • Alexandra J. Burton
    • 4
  • Thomas C. Linden
    • 4
  • Janice L. Liotta
    • 5
  • Theresa L. Ollivett
    • 6
  • Leonardo Tondello-Martins
    • 4
  • Hussni O. Mohammed
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Animal ScienceCornell UniversityIthacaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, c2-562 VMC, College of Veterinary MedicineCornell UniversityIthacaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Microbiology and Immunology, c5-181 VMC, College of Veterinary MedicineCornell UniversityIthacaUSA
  4. 4.Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary MedicineCornell UniversityIthacaUSA
  5. 5.Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary MedicineCornell UniversityIthacaUSA
  6. 6.Department of Clinical Sciences, Box 20, College of Veterinary MedicineCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations