Parasitology Research

, Volume 112, Issue 2, pp 679–692 | Cite as

Adulticidal, repellent, and ovicidal properties of indigenous plant extracts against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)

Original Paper

Abstract

Mosquito-borne diseases with an economic impact create loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Extracts from plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents because they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are biodegradable into nontoxic products and potentially suitable for use to control mosquitoes. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the adulticidal, repellent, and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, aqueous, and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plants Andrographis paniculata, Cassia occidentalis, and Euphorbia hirta against the medically important mosquito vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate adulticide effects; however, the highest adult mortality was found in methanol extract of A. paniculata followed by C. occidentalis and E. hirta against the adults of A. stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 210.30, 225.91, and 263.91 ppm and 527.31, 586.36, and 621.91 ppm, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, aqueous, and methanol extract of A. paniculata, C. occidentalis, and E. hirta plants at three different concentrations of 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 mg/cm2 were applied on skin of forearm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, these three plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Mortality of 100 % with methanol extract of A. paniculata exerted at 150 ppm and aqueous, methanol extract of C. occidentalis and E. hirta were exerted at 300 ppm. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of A. paniculata, C. occidentalis, and E. hirta have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. stephensi. Further detailed research is needed to identify the active ingredient in the extracts and implement the effective mosquito management program.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the Life Science Research Board (DRDO) for providing the financial assistance to the project. The authors extend thanks to The Director and Joint Director, Defence Research Development Organisation, Bharathiar University Centre for Life Science for their help and suggestion.

References

  1. Abirami D, Murugan K (2011) HPTLC quantification of flavonoids, larvicidal and smoke repellent activities of Cassia occidentalis L. (Caesalpiniaceae) against malarial vector Anopheles stephensi Lis (Diptera: culicidae). J Phytol 3(2):60–72Google Scholar
  2. Agalya Priyadarshini K, Murugan K, Panneerselvam C, Ponarulselvam S, Hwang J-S, Nicoletti M (2012) Biolarvicidal and pupicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Euphorbia hirta against Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 111:997–1006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amer A, Mehlhorn H (2006a) Repellency effect of forty-one essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex mosquitoes. Parasitol Res 99:478–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amer A, Mehlhorn H (2006b) The sensilla of Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes and their importance in repellency. Parasitol Res 99:491–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amerasan D, Murugan K, Kovendan K, Mahesh Kumar P, Panneerselvam C, Subramaniam J, John William S, Hwang JS (2012) Adulticidal and repellent properties of Cassia tora Linn. (Family: Caesalpinaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. Parasitol Res. doi: 10.1007/s00436-012-3042-3
  6. Anonymous (2008) Euphorbia hirta L. Available: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/4629. (accessed on 31 May 2010)
  7. Babu R, Murugan K (1998) Interactive effect of neem seed kernel and neem gum extract on the control of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Neem Newslett 15(2):1–9Google Scholar
  8. Bagavan A, Rahuman A, Kamaraj C, Geetha K (2008) Larvicidal activity of saponin from Achyranthes aspera against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 103:223–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bin-Hafeez B, Hussaini AS (2001) Protective effect of Cassia occidentalis L. on cyclophosphamide-induced suppression of humoral immunity in mile. J Ethnopharmacol 75(1):13–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bright AA, Babu A, Ignacimuth S, Dorn S (2001) Efficacy of crude extracts of Andrographis paniculata Nees on Callosobruchus chinensis L. during post harvest storage of cowpea. Indian J Exp Biol 39:715–718PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Burkill IH (1966) A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula, vol I & II. Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives, Kuala Lumpur, p 2444Google Scholar
  12. Chander R, Srivastava V, Tandon JS, Kapoor NK (1995) Antihepatotoxic activity of diterpenes of Andrographis panculata (Kal-megh) against Plasmodium berghei-induced hepatic damage in Mastomys natalensis. Pharm Biol 33:135–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen L (1991) Studies on the polyphenols from leaves of Euphorbia hirta L. China J Chin Mater Med 16(1):38–39Google Scholar
  14. Chenniappan K, Kadarkarai M (2008) Oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and gravid mortality effects of ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata Nees against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). Entomol Res 38:119–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chidambara K, Yanitha A, Mahadeva M, Ravishankar G (2003) Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Cissie guandrangularis L. J Med Food 6:2Google Scholar
  16. Choochote W, Kanjanapothi BTD, Rattanachanpichai E, Chaithong U, Chaiwong P, Jitpakdi A, Tippawangkosol P, Riyong D, Pitasawat B (2004) Potential of crude seed extract of celery, Apium graveolens L., against the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.). J Vect Ecol 12:340–346Google Scholar
  17. Chopra RN, Nayar SL et al (1956) Glossary of Indian medicinal plants. CSIR, New Delhi, 8172360487Google Scholar
  18. Cooper RA, Hartwig CL, Ferdig MT (2005) pfcrt is more than the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance gene: a functional and evolutionary perspective. Acta Trop 94:170–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Curtis CF (1990) Appropriate technology in vector control. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 125–128Google Scholar
  20. Das NG, Nath DR, Baruah I, Talukdar PK, Das SG (2000) Field evaluation of herbal mosquito repellents. J Commun Dis 31(4):241–245Google Scholar
  21. David JP, Rey D, Pautou MP, Meyran JC (2000) Differential toxicity of leaf litter to dipteran larvae of mosquito developmental sites. J Invertebr Pathol 75:9–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dutta A, Sukul NC (1982) Filaricidal properties of a wild herb, Andrographis paniculata. J Helminthol 56:81–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Elango G, Rahuman AA, Bagavan A, Kamaraj C, Zahir AA, Rajakumar G, Marimuthu S, Santhoshkumar T (2010) Efficacy of botanical extracts against Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Parasitol Res 106(2):481–492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Elango G, Rahuman AA, Bagavan A, Kamaraj C, Zahir AA, Venkatesan C (2009) Laboratory study on larvicidal activity of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Parasitol Res 104(6):1381–1388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fradin MS, Day JF (2002) Comparative efficacy of insect repellents against mosquito bite. New Engl J Med 347:13–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Garcia LS (2010) Malaria. Clin Lab Med 30:93–129. doi: 10.1016/j.cll.2009.10.001 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gayathri V, Balakrishna Murthy P (2006) Reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin and kdr mutation in Anopheles stephensi Liston, a malaria vector in India. J Am Mosq Cont Assoc 22:678–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Geetha I, Paily KP, Manonmani AM (2011) Mosquito adulticidal activity of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis. Pest Manag Sci 68:1447–1450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gericke A, Govere JM, Durrheim DN (2002) Insecticide susceptibility in the South African malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae). S Afr J Sc 98:205–208Google Scholar
  30. Gorter MK (1911) The bitter constituent of Andrographis paniculata Nees. Rec Trav Chem 30:151–160Google Scholar
  31. Govindarajan M (2009) Bioefficacy of Cassia fistula Linn. (Leguminosae) leaf extract against chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 13(2):99–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Govindarajan M, Sivakumar R (2012) Adulticidal properties of Cardiospermum halicacabum plant extracts against three important vector mosquitoes. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 3:95–104Google Scholar
  33. Gupta RK, Rutledge LC (1994) Role of repellents in vector control and disease prevention. Am J Trop Med Hyg 50:82–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hargreaves K, Koekemoer LL, Brooke BD, Hunt RH, Mthembu J, Coetzee M (2000) Anopheles funestus resistant to pyrethroid insecticides in South Africa. Med Vet Entomol 14:181–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hwang YSM, Wu KH, Umamato JK, Akelord J, Mulla MS (1985) Isolation and identification of mosquito repellent in Artemisia vulgaris. J Chem Ecol l:1–1297Google Scholar
  36. Jeyabalan D, Arul N, Thangamathi P (2003) Studies on effects of Pelargonium citrosa leaf extracts on malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston. Bioresour Technol 89(2):185–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kabiruddin M (1951) Makhzanul advia. Shaikh Mohd Bashir, Lucknow, pp 454–455Google Scholar
  38. Kapur P (1999) Chlorophyll as an indicator of light intensity in Andrographis paniculata. Indian J Plant Physiol 4:15–19Google Scholar
  39. Karunamoorthi K, Ramanujam S, Rathinasamy R (2008b) Evaluation of leaf extracts of Vitex negundo L. (Family: Verbenaceae) against larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus and repellent activity on adult vector mosquitoes. Parasitol Res 103:545–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kayembe JS, Taba KM, Ntumba K, Tshiongo MTC, Kazadi TK (2010) In vitro anti-malarial activity of 20 quinones isolated from four plants used by traditional healers in the Democratic Republic of Congo. J Med Plant Res 4(11):991–994Google Scholar
  41. Killeen GF, Fillinger U, Knols BG (2002) Advantages of larval control for African malaria vectors: low mobility and behavioural responsiveness of immature mosquito stages allow high effective coverage. Malar J 1:8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kirtikar KR, Basu BD (1933) Cassia occidentalis, Indian Medicinal Plants II edn. 1999; Bisen Singh Mahandra Pal Singh, Dehradun, ISBN: 170890551, pp 860Google Scholar
  43. Kuppusamy C, Murgan K (2009) Mosquitocidal effect of Andrographis paniculata Nees against the malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). Int J Integr Biol 5(2):75–81Google Scholar
  44. Kuppusamy C, Murugan K (2006) Mosquitocidal effect of ethanolic extracts of Andrographis paniculata Nees on filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). In: International Conference on Diversity of Insects: Challenging Issues in Management and Conservation, 30 January–3 February 2006, Tamil Nadu, India pp 194Google Scholar
  45. Lal S, Laharia C, Saxena VK (2010) Insecticide treated nets, antimalarials and child survival in India. Indian J Pediatr 77:425–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lind EM, Tallantire AC (1971) Some common flowering plants of Uganda. Oxford University Press, Nairobi, p 182Google Scholar
  47. Luz C, Tai MH, Santos AH, Rocha LF, Albernaz DA, Silva HH (2007) Ovicidal activity of entomopathogenic hyphomycetes on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. J Med Entomol 44(5):799–804PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Malarvannan S, Giridharan R, Sekar S, Prabavathy VR, Nair S (2009) Ovicidal activity of crude extracts of few traditional plants against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera). J Biopest 2:64–71Google Scholar
  49. Mallavadhani UV, Narasimhany K (2009) Two novel butanol rhamnosides from an Indian traditional herb, Euphorbia hirta. Nat Prod Res 23(7):644–651PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Maurya P, Mohan L, Sharma P, Batabyal L, Srivastava CN (2007) Larvicidal efficacy of Aloe barbadensis and Cannabis sativa against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). Entomol Res 37:153–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mehlhorn H, Schmahl G, Schmidt J (2005) Extract of the seeds of the plant Vitex agnus castus proven to be highly efficacious as a repellent against ticks, fleas, mosquitoes and biting flies. Parasitol Res 95:363–365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Misra P, Pal NL, Guru PY, Katiyar JC, Srivastava V, Tandon JS (1992) Antimalarial activity of Andrographis paniculata (Kalmegh) against Plasmodium berghei NK 65 in Mastomys natalensis. Int J Pharm 30:263–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mullai K, Jebanesan A (2006) Larvicidal and ovicidal activity of the leaf extract of two cucurbitaceous plants against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Ind J Environ Ecoplan 12:611–615Google Scholar
  54. Mullai K, Jebanesan A, Pushpanathan T (2008) Effect of bioactive fractions of Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. leaf extract against Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. Parasitol Res 102(5):951–955PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Murugan K, Jeyabalan D, Senthilkumar N, Babu R, Sivaramakrishnan S (1996) Antipupational effect of neem seed kernel extract against mosquito larvae of Anopheles stephensi (Liston). J Ent Res 20:137–139Google Scholar
  56. Murugan K, Mahesh Kumar P, Kovendan K, Amerasan D, Subramaniam J (2012) Larvicidal, pupicidal, repellent and adulticidal activity of Citrus sinensis orange peel extract against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res. doi: 10.1007/s00436-012-3021-8
  57. Muthukrishnan J, Pushpalatha E, Kasthuribhai A (1997) Biological effects of four plants extract on Culex quinquefasciatus larval stages. Insect Sci Appl 17:389–394Google Scholar
  58. Nadkami KM (1976) Indian Materia Medica, vol. 1. Popular Prakashan, Bombay, ISBN:81-7154-143-7 p 292Google Scholar
  59. Nair S, Thomas J (2000) Evaluation of Acorus calamus L. extracts of various stage Bactrocera cucurbitae Coq. Entomon 25:323–329Google Scholar
  60. Nathan SS, Kalaivani K, Murugan K, Chung PG (2005) Effects of neem limonoids on malarial vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). Acta Trop 96:47–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nour AH, Elhussein SA, Osman NA, Nour AH (2009) Repellent activities of the essential oils of four Sudanese accessions of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) against Anopheles mosquito. J Appl Sci 9:2645–2648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Oz E, Cinbilgel I, Cetin H (2007) Fumigant toxicity of essential oil from Mentha longifolia L. (Lamiaceae) against the house mosquito, Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). The 4th European Mosquito Control Association Workshop, Prague, Czech Republic, September 11–14Google Scholar
  63. Panneerselvam C, Murugan K, Kovendan K, Mahesh Kumar P (2012) Mosquito larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, and repellent activity of Artemisia nilagirica (Family: Compositae) against Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. Parasitol Res. doi: 10.1007/s00436-012-3073-9
  64. Prajapati V, Tripathi AK, Aggarwal KK, Khanuja SPS (2005) Insecticidal, repellent and oviposition-deterrent activity of selected essential oils against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Bioresour Technol 96:1749–1757PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Prakash A, Rao J (1997) Botanical pesticides in agriculture. CRC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  66. Pushpanathan T, Jebanesan A, Govindarajan M (2006) Larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent activities of Cymbopogan citratus Stapf (Graminae) essential oil against the filarial mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus (say). (Diptera: Culicidae). Trop Biomed 23:208–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Rajkumar S, Jebanesan A (2005) Oviposition deterrent and skin repellent activities of Solanum trilobatum leaf extract against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi. J Insect Sci 5:15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Rajkumar S, Jebanesan A (2009) Larvicidal and oviposition activity of Cassia obtusifolia Linn (Family: Leguminosae) leaf extract against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 104(2):337–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ranson H, Rossiter L, Ortelli F, Jensen B, Wang X, Roth CW, Collins FH, Hemingway J (2001) Identification of a novel class of insect glutathione S-transferases involved in resistance to DDT in the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae. Biochem J 359:295–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rey D, Pautou MP, Meyran JC (1999) Histopathological effects of tannic acid on the midgut epithelium of some aquatic dipteral larvae. J Invertebr Pathol 73:173–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sharma P, Mohan L, Srivastava CN (2009) Amaranthus oleracea and Euphorbia hirta: natural potential larvicidal agents against the urban Indian malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 106:171–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Shelton AM, Wang P, Zhao J-Z, Roush RT (2007) Resistance to insect pathogens and strategies to manage resistance: an update. In: Laceyand LA, Kaya HK (eds) Field manual of techniques in invertebrate pathology. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  73. Soforowa EA (1982) Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. Wiley, Chichester, p 198Google Scholar
  74. Su T, Mulla MS (1998) Ovicidal activity of neem products (Azadirachtin) against Culex tarsalis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). J Am Mosq Cont Assoc 14:204–209Google Scholar
  75. Sugati SS, Sudjaswadi W, Rini S, Wien W (1999) Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wallich ex Nees. In: de Padua LS, Bunyapraphatsara N, Lemmens RHMJ (eds) PROSEA-plant resources of Southeast Asia No. 12(1). Medicinal and poisonous plants 1. Backhuys, Leiden, pp 119–123Google Scholar
  76. Tawatsin A, Wratten SD, Scott RR, Thavara U, Techadamrongsin Y (2001) Repellency of volatile oils from plants against three mosquito vectors. J Vector Ecol 26:76–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Tona L, Mesia K et al (2001) In-vivo antimalarial activity of Cassia occidentalis, Morinda morindoides and Phyllanthus niruri. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 95:47–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Trigg JK (1996) Evaluation of a eucalyptus-based repellent against Anopheles spp. in Tanzania. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 12:243–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Tyagi BK, Ramnath T, Shahi AK (1994) Evaluation of repellency effect of Tagetus minuta (Family: Compositae) against the vector mosquitoes Anopheles stephensi Liston. Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti L. Int Pest Contr 39:48Google Scholar
  80. Usta J, Kreydiyyeh S, Bakajian K, Nakkash-Chmaisse H (2002) In vitro effect of eugenol and cinnamaldehyde on membrane potential and respiratory complexes in isolated rat liver mitochondria. Food Chem Toxicol 40:935–940PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Venkatachalam MR, Jebanesan A (2001) Repellent activity of Ferronia elephantum Corr. (Rutaceae) leaf extract against Aedes aegypti. Bioresour Tech 76(3):287–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Vieira RF, Imon JE (2000) Chemical characterization of basil (Ocimum spp.) found in the markets and used in traditional medicine in Brazil. Econ Bot 54:207–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. World Health Organization (1981) Instructions for determining the susceptibility or resistance of adult mosquitoes to organochlorine, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides: diagnostic test. WHO/VBC/81-807, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  84. Yang YC, Lee EH, Lee HS, Lee DK, Ahn YJ (2004) Repellency of aromatic medicinal plant extracts and a steam distillate to Aedes aegypti. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 20(2):146–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Yi WU, Wei QU, Di GENG, Jing-Yu LIANG, Yang-Li LUO (2012) Phenols and flavonoids from the aerial part of Euphorbia hirta. Chin J Nat Med 10(1):0040–0042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Zaridah MZ, Idid SZ, Omar AW, Khozirah S (2001) In vitro antifilarial effects of three plant species against adult worms of subperiodic Brugia malayi. J Ethnopharmacol 78:79–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.DRDO–BU Center for Life SciencesBharathiar UniversityCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.Division of Entomology, Department of Zoology, School of Life SciencesBharathiar UniversityCoimbatoreIndia

Personalised recommendations