Parasitology Research

, Volume 112, Issue 2, pp 603–610 | Cite as

Anthelmintic activity of carvacryl acetate against Schistosoma mansoni

  • Josué de Moraes
  • Aline A. Leite Carvalho
  • Eliana Nakano
  • Antonia Amanda Cardoso de Almeida
  • Thiago Henrique da Costa Marques
  • Luciana Nalone Andrade
  • Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas
  • Damião Pergentino de Sousa
Original Paper

Abstract

Blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma are the causative agents of human schistosomiasis, a debilitating disease that afflicts over 200 million people worldwide. Praziquantel is the drug of choice but concerns over praziquantel resistance have renewed interest in the search for alternative drug therapies. Carvacrol, a naturally occurring monoterpene phenol and food additive, has been shown high medicinal importance, including antimicrobials activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro effect of carvacryl acetate, a derivative of carvacrol, on Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. We demonstrated that carvacryl acetate at 6.25 μg/mL has antischistosomal activity, affecting parasite motility and viability. Additionally, confocal laser scanning microscopy pictures revealed morphological alterations on the tegumental surface of worms, where some tubercles appeared to be swollen with numerous small blebs emerging from the tegument around the tubercles. Furthermore, experiments performed using carvacryl acetate at sub-lethal concentrations (ranging from 1.562 to 6.25 μg/mL) showed an inhibitory effect on the daily egg output of paired adult worms. Thus, carvacryl acetate is toxic at high doses, while at sub-lethal doses, it significantly interferes with the reproductive fitness of S. mansoni adult worms. Due to its safety and wide use in the industry, carvacryl acetate is a promising natural product-derived compound and it may represent a step forward in the search for novel anthelmintic agents, at a time when there is an urgent need for novel drugs.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Mr. Alexsander S. Souza (Parasitology Laboratory, Butantan Institute, São Paulo, SP, Brazil) for expert help with the confocal microscopy studies. This work was supported by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP, Brazil Grant numbers: 06/56216-8 and 00/11624-5).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Josué de Moraes
    • 1
    • 2
  • Aline A. Leite Carvalho
    • 2
  • Eliana Nakano
    • 1
  • Antonia Amanda Cardoso de Almeida
    • 3
  • Thiago Henrique da Costa Marques
    • 4
  • Luciana Nalone Andrade
    • 5
  • Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas
    • 3
    • 4
  • Damião Pergentino de Sousa
    • 5
  1. 1.Parasitology LaboratoryButantan InstituteSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Supervision of Health Surveillance, SUVIS Casa Verde, Municipal Health Department of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Biochemistry and PharmacologyPost-graduation Program in Pharmaceutics Science of Federal University of PiauíTeresinaBrazil
  4. 4.Post-graduation Program in Biotechnology (RENORBIO) of Federal University of PiauíTeresinaBrazil
  5. 5.Department of PharmacyFederal University of SergipeSão CristóvãoBrazil

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