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Parasitology Research

, Volume 112, Issue 2, pp 487–499 | Cite as

Studies on the impact of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in relation to malaria and filariasis vector control against Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

  • Selladurai Subarani
  • Selvi SabhanayakamEmail author
  • Chinnaperumal Kamaraj
Original Paper

Abstract

Biosynthesized nanoparticles have been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract and eco-friendly reducing and capping agents. The present study was based on assessments of the larvicidal activities to determine the efficacies of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Vinca rosea (L.) (Apocynaceae) against the larvae of malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of V. rosea and synthesized AgNPs for 24, 48, and 72 h. AgNPs were rapidly synthesized using the leaf extract of V. rosea, and the formation of nanoparticles was observed within 15 min. The results recorded from UV–Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The formation of the AgNPs synthesized from the XRD spectrum compared with the Bragg reflections at 2θ = 29.36, 38.26, 44.51, 63.54, and 77.13° which can be indexed to the (121), (111), (200), (220), and (311) orientations, respectively, confirmed the presence of AgNPs. The FTIR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at the spectra showed sharp and strong absorption band at 3,406.71 to 3,431.90 cm−1 double in case of NH2 group of a primary amine (N–H stretch). The presence of the sharp peak at 2,926.54 to 2,925.80 cm−1 very broad often looks like distorted baseline (O–H carboxylic acids). The band 1,633.26 to 1,625.81 cm−1 was assigned to C = C alkenes, aromatic ring stretching vibration, respectively. SEM analysis of the synthesized AgNPs clearly showed the clustered and irregular shapes, mostly aggregated and having the size of 120 nm. TEM reveals spherical shape of synthesized AgNPs. Particle size analysis revealed that the size of particles ranges from 25 to 47 nm with average size of 34.61 nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized AgNPs. In larvicidal activity, the results showed that the maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs against the fourth instar larvae of A. stephensi (LC50 = 12.47 and 16.84 mg/mL and LC90 = 36.33 and 68.62 mg/mL) on 48 and 72 h of exposure and against C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 43.80 mg/mL and LC90 = 120.54 mg/mL) on 72-h exposure, and aqueous extract showed 100 % mortality against A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 78.62 and 55.21 mg/mL and LC90 = 184.85 and 112.72 mg/mL) on 72-h exposure at concentrations of 50 mg/mL, respectively. The AgNPs did not exhibit any noticeable toxicity on Poecilia reticulata after 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure. These results suggest that the synthesized AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus. This method is considered as a new approach to control vectors. Therefore, this study provides the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of V. rosea synthesized AgNPs against vectors.

Keywords

Malaria Silver Nanoparticles Leaf Extract Mosquito Larva Larvicidal Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the HOD of Zoology Department, Annamalai University, for providing the facilities to carry out this work. We acknowledge the support extended by the Madras Veterinary College and Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, in analyzing the samples by TEM and SEM.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Selladurai Subarani
    • 1
  • Selvi Sabhanayakam
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chinnaperumal Kamaraj
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyAnnamalai UniversityAnnamalai NagarIndia
  2. 2.Post Graduate and Research Department of ZoologyC. Abdul Hakeem CollegeVellore DistrictIndia

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