Parasitology Research

, Volume 111, Issue 4, pp 1437–1445 | Cite as

New insight into the morphology of Eurytrema coelomaticum (Trematoda, Dicrocoeliidae) cercariae by light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopies

  • Jairo Pinheiro
  • Daniele Oliveira Franco-Acuña
  • Aleksandra Oliveira-Menezes
  • Solange Viana Paschoal Blanco Brandolini
  • Renato Augusto DaMatta
  • Wanderley de Souza
Original Paper


Eurytrema coelomaticum is a digenetic trematode that parasitizes the pancreatic ducts of ruminants. In the present study, the morphology of the cercariae was analyzed using light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopies. The size of the larvae was larger than that reported in the literature. An oral sucker with many papillae and an oral aperture in its center and a ventral sucker with few discrete papillae on the edge were observed. No stylet at the anterior end of the larval body and spines on the tegument of the end of the tail were observed. The cercariae had lateral penetration glands and (central) pre-acetabular glands, from which ducts lead to the anterior region and open into a small anterior pocket. The flame cells were located laterally and communicated with fine branches, converging to two lateral excretory collecting ducts that opened into an excretory bladder, centrally located at the posterior end of the body. The tegument presented an external layer loosely attached to the larval body, below which an amorphous syncytial outer layer with many mitochondrial profiles was observed. This region exhibited many secretions and released secretory granules, indicating intense secretory activity. The circular and longitudinal muscle layers were arranged in sequence below the outer layer. The outer layer was connected by cytoplasmic bridges crossing the muscular layers to the internal region of the tegument, where the cell body with nucleus was located. In the cercarial body, it was possible to observe a typical flame cell with the barrel region, where cilia and the internal and external ribbed regions were found. The somatic cells seem to have an active metabolism, with a well-developed endoplasmic reticulum, secretory granules, and evident nuclei. The results are discussed in the light of the biology and taxonomy of this species.


Ventral Sucker Oral Sucker Snail Host Longitudinal Muscle Layer Digenetic Trematode 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We thank Beatriz Ferreira Ribeiro, Giovana Alves de Moraes, and Márcia Adriana da Silva for technical support. Financial support was by Fundação de Coordenação de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ), and Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP). JP is a FAPERJ post-doctoral and RAD and WS are CNPq fellows.


  1. Bassani CA, Sangioni LA, Saut JPE, Yamamamura MH, Headley SA (2006) Epidemiology of eurytrematosis (Eurytrema spp. Trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae) in slaughtered beef cattle from the central-west region of the State of Paraná, Brazil. Vet Parasitol 141:356–361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bossaert K, Coignoul F, Kumar V (1989) Eurytrema coelomaticum infection in an abattoir in South Brazil. Ann Soc Belge Méd Trop 69:263–268Google Scholar
  3. Brandolini SVPB, Amato SB (2001) Desenvolvimento 299 de Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard et Billet) (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae) em Bradybaena similaris (Fèrussac) (Gastropoda, Xanthonychidae). Rev Bras Zool 18:499–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cavalcanti MGS, Araújo HRC, Paiva MHS, Silva GM, Barbosa CCGS, Silva LF, Brayner FA, Alves LC (2009) Ultrastructural and cytochemical aspects of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. Micron 40:394–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cousin C, Dorsey C, Kennedy V, Ofori K (1995) Ultrastructure of the ventral sucker of Schistosoma mansoni cercaria. J Morphol 223:215–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. De Souza W (2007) Técnicas de Microscopia Eletrônica Aplicada as Ciências Biológicas. Sociedade Brasileira de Microscopia, Rio de Janeiro, RJGoogle Scholar
  7. Dorsey CH (1994) Schistosoma mansoni: ultrastructure of cercarial escape glands. Exp Parasitol 36:386–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dorsey C, Cousin C (1995) Cyton II: a subtegumental cell type in the cercaria of Schistosoma mansoni. J Morphol 224:233–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dorsey CH, Cousin CE, Lewis FA, Stirewalt MA (2002) Ultrastructure of the Schistosoma mansoni cercaria. Micron 33:279–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ehlers U (1985) Phylogenetic relationship within Platyhelminthes. In: Morris SC, George JD, Gibson R, Platt HM (eds) The origins and relationships of lower invertebrates. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 143–158Google Scholar
  11. Giard A, Billet A (1892) Sur quelques Trématodes parasitesdes boeufs du Tonkin. C R Soc Biol 94:613Google Scholar
  12. Horemans AM, Tielens AG, van den Bergh SG (1991) The transition 322 from an aerobic to an anaerobic energy metabolism in transforming Schistosoma mansoni cercariae occurs exclusively in the head. Parasitology 102:259–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Humason GL (1979) Animal tissue techniques. W. H. Freeman and Company, CA, 326 USAGoogle Scholar
  14. Ilha MRS, Loretti AP, Reis ACF (2005) Wasting and mortality in beef cattle parasitized by Eurytrema coelomaticum in the State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Vet Parasitol 133:49–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kanev I, Eisenhut U, Ostrowski de Nunez U, Manga Gonzalez MU, Tzolov D, Dimitrov V, Radev V (1993) Redescription of the tail and fin folds of Echinostoma revolutum cercariae from its type locality (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae). Ann Parasitol Hum Comp 68:125–127Google Scholar
  16. Koie M (1971) On the histochemistry and ultrastructure of the tegument and associated structures of the cercariae of Zoogonoides viviparous in the first intermediate host. Ophelia 9:165–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Looss A (1907) Some parasites in the Museum of the School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1:123–154Google Scholar
  18. Matricon-Gondran M (1971) Étude ultrastructurale de récepteurs sensoriels tégumentaires de quelques Trématodes digénétiques larvaires. Z Parasitenkd 35:318–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Meuleman EA, Holzmann PJ, Peet RC (1980) The development of daughter sporocysts inside the mother sporocyst of Schistosoma mansoni with special reference to the ultrastructure of the body wall. Z Parasitenkd 61:201–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mohamed SH, Mostafa OM, Mohammad AH (1992) Scanning electron microscopical studies on cercariae and metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 29:841–848Google Scholar
  21. Pinheiro J, Maldonado A Jr, Attias M, Lanfredi RM (2004a) Ultrastructure of the miracidium of Echinostoma paraensei Lie & Basch, 1967 (Trematoda, Echinostomatidae). Parasitol Res 97:367–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pinheiro J, Maldonado A Jr, Attias M, Lanfredi RM (2004b) Light and scanning electron microscopy of the miracidium of Echinostoma paraensei (Lie & Basch, 1967) (Trematoda, Echinostomatidae). Vet Parasitol 26:265–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pinheiro J, Maldonado Junior A, Attias M, Lanfredi RM (2005) Morphology of the rediae of Echinostoma paraensei (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) from intermediate host Lymnaea columella (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Parasitol Res 93:171–177Google Scholar
  24. Pinheiro J, Franco-Acuña DO, Oliveira-Menezes A, Brandolini SVPB, De Souza W, DaMatta RA (2011) Ultrastructure of the sporocysts of Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard et Billet, 1892) Looss, 1907. Vet Parasitol 182:201–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Robinson RD, Halton DW (1983) Functional morphology of the tegument of Corrigia vitta (Trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae). Z Parasitenkd 69:319–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sakamoto T, Oikawa T (2007) Cubic crystal protein inclusions in the neodermis of the pancreatic fluke, Eurytrema pancreaticum, and Eurytrema coelomaticum. Parasitol Res 101:1393–1399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sakamoto T, Tanimura I, Seki I (1985) Studies on Eurytrema coelomaticum V. Electron microscopical observations on the tegument and associated structures of adult Eurytrema coelomaticum. J Fac Agr Iwate Univ 17:307–319Google Scholar
  28. Smyth JD, Halton DW (1983) The physiology of trematodes, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  29. Tang CC (1950) Studies on the life history of Eurytrema pancreaticum Janson, 1889. J Parasitol 36:559–574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tang Z, Tang C (1977) The biology and epidemiology of Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard et Billet, 1892) and Eurytrema pancreaticum (Janson, 1889) in cattle and sheep in China. Acta Zool Sin 23:267–282Google Scholar
  31. Tongu Y, Tomita S, Sakumoto D, Suguri S, Saito T, Ikeda S, Inatomi S (1975) Fine structure of penetration gland cells in the genus Metagonimus. Jap J Parasitol 24:312–317Google Scholar
  32. Ueta MT (1980) Infecção experimental de Lymnaea columella por Fasciola hepatica. Rev Saúde Púb 14:53–57Google Scholar
  33. Van Oordt BE, Tielens AG, Van den Bergh SG (1989) Aerobic to anaerobic transition in the carbohydrate metabolism of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae during transformation in vitro. Parasitology 98:409–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zdárská Z (1977) Scanning electron microscopy of the cercaria of Dicrocoelium lanceatum. Folia Parasitol 24:265–267Google Scholar
  35. Zdárská Z (1982) Ultrastructure of the tegument Hasstilesia ovis larval stages. Folia Parasitol 29:367–370Google Scholar
  36. Zdárská Z (1983) Ultrastructure of the cercariae of Brachylaimus aequans. Folia Parasitol 30:189–192Google Scholar
  37. Zdárská Z (1989) Ultrastructural study of the glandular system and its participation in tegument formation in Echinostoma revolutum cercaria. Folia Parasitol 36:307–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Zdárská Z, Nesterenko LT, Fedoseenko VM (1983) Ultrastructure of Eurytrema coelomaticum cercariae. Folia Parasitol 30:257–261Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jairo Pinheiro
    • 1
  • Daniele Oliveira Franco-Acuña
    • 2
  • Aleksandra Oliveira-Menezes
    • 3
  • Solange Viana Paschoal Blanco Brandolini
    • 4
  • Renato Augusto DaMatta
    • 5
  • Wanderley de Souza
    • 6
  1. 1.Área de Biofísica, Departamento de Ciências FisiológicasInstituto de Biologia, UFRRJSeropédicaBrazil
  2. 2.Curso de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias, Departamento de Parasitologia AnimalInstituto de Veterinária, UFRRJSeropédicaBrazil
  3. 3.Grupo de Sistemática e Biologia Evolutiva (GSE), Pólo BarretoUniversidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - Campus Macaé - Avenida São José do BarretoMacaéBrazil
  4. 4.Área de Biologia, Departamento de Biologia AnimalInstituto de Biologia, UFRRJSeropédicaBrazil
  5. 5.Laboratorio de Biologia Celular e TecidualCentro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, UENFCampos dos GoytacazesBrazil
  6. 6.Laboratório de Ultraestrutura Celular Hertha Meyer, Programa de Biologia Celular e Parasitologia, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas FilhoCentro de Ciências da Saúde, UFRJSeropédicaBrazil

Personalised recommendations