Parasitology Research

, Volume 111, Issue 3, pp 1349–1355 | Cite as

Detection of concurrent infection of dairy cattle with Blastocystis, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon by molecular and microscopic methods

  • Ronald FayerEmail author
  • Monica Santin
  • Dumitru Macarisin
Original Paper


Of fecal specimens examined from 47 dairy cattle ranging in age from neonates to multiparous cows, 9, 10, 24, and 17 were positive for Blastocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi, respectively, as determined by PCR. Eight 3- to 5-month-old cattle were concurrently infected with three or four of these parasites. This is the first report to identify multiple concurrent infections with these four potentially zoonotic protist pathogens in cattle. None of the cattle exhibited signs of illness or effects of infection on growth and are regarded as healthy carriers. A commercially available immunofluorescence (IFA) microscopic test confirmed six of seven available PCR-positive Blastocystis specimens and identified one IFA-positive cow that was PCR negative.


Dairy Cattle Basic Local Alignment Search Tool Fecal Specimen Concurrent Infection Santin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We thank Richard Gould and Dede Willis for providing reagents for testing.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag (outside the USA) 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronald Fayer
    • 1
    Email author
  • Monica Santin
    • 1
  • Dumitru Macarisin
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center (BARC)United States Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS)BeltsvilleUSA

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