Parasitology Research

, Volume 111, Issue 3, pp 1267–1275 | Cite as

Monitoring bluetongue virus vectors in Andalusia (SW Europe): Culicoides species composition and factors affecting capture rates of the biting midge Culicoides imicola

  • Jesús M. Pérez
  • Juan A. García-Ballester
  • Jorge R. López-Olvera
  • Emmanuel Serrano
Original Paper


In this work, we summarize the results of captures of Culicoides species in Andalusia (S Spain) during 2007–2008. Four out of the 15 midge species—Culicoides imicola, Culicoides obsoletus complex, Culicoides pulicaris complex, and Culicoides nubeculosus—accounted for 80.7 % of captures (n = 68,190). Captures were seasonal and mostly occurred in May–November. The overall number of Culicoides specimens captured and the mean number of caught per trap were higher in 2007. We used an information-theoretic approach to analyze whether environmental factors (e.g., weather, altitude above the sea level, distance of the trap from the ground, distance to animals, and land use) affected C. imicola capture probability and success. Mean temperature and rainfall (both integrated into the Gaussen index), distance of traps to host animals, and trap height above the ground were the main factors explaining variance in capture rates in the Bluetongue Entomologic Surveillance Andalusian Program (BESAP). However, all of these patterns strongly varied among traps. As previously remarked by other authors, standardized capture methods and protocols for trap use are needed to ensure that results obtained in different geographical areas and/or periods are comparable.


Capture Probability Trapping Site Compete Model Wild Ungulate Bluetongue Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors wish to thank the Dirección General de la Producción Agraria y Ganadera, especially its General Director, Mrs. Judit Anda-Ugarte, for allowing the use of their captured data, as well as the staff of the public firm D.A.P., the coordinators of the monitoring program, for their help with the field work and Culicoides identification. We are also indebted to Dr. R. Meiswinkel for kindly supplying the relevant bibliographic references. E. Serrano is supported by a Beatriu de Pinós programme (BP-DGR 2011) of the Catalonian Science and Technology System, Spain. This work was partially supported by the Plan Andaluz de Investigación (Group RNM-118). The authors would also like to thank Michael Lockwood for his revision of the English language.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jesús M. Pérez
    • 1
  • Juan A. García-Ballester
    • 1
  • Jorge R. López-Olvera
    • 2
  • Emmanuel Serrano
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Departamento de Biología Animal, Biología Vegetal y EcologíaUniversidad de JaénJaénSpain
  2. 2.Servei d´Ecopatologia de Fauna Salvatge, Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia AnimalsUniversitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Estadística i Investigació Operativa, Departament de MatemàticaUniversitat de Lleida (UdL)LleidaSpain

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