Parasitology Research

, Volume 111, Issue 3, pp 1007–1017 | Cite as

Insecticidal and repellent activity of Hiptage benghalensis L. Kruz (Malpighiaceae) against mosquito vectors

  • Lalrotluanga
  • Lalchawimawii Ngente
  • Senthil Kumar Nachimuthu
  • Gurusubramanian Guruswami
Original Paper


Plant-based insecticides for vector control are urgently needed for Anopheles barbirostris, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes albopictus which are the primary vectors of malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and dengue, respectively, in India and other South East Asian countries. In the present study, larvicidal, adulticidal, and repellent activities of acetone root bark extract of Hiptage benghalensis were tested against the larvae and adults of the three mosquito vectors. The acetone root bark extracts of H. benghalensis was more effective as larvicides with low LC50 (11.15–16.78 ppm) and LT50 (1.25–4.84 h at 200 and 400 ppm) values. Results of log probit analysis (at 95 % confidence level) and regression analysis of crude acetone root bark extract of H. benghalensis revealed that lethal concentration (LC50) values gradually decreased with the exposure periods; lethal time (LT50) decreased with the concentration, and the mortality is positively correlated with the concentration. The order of susceptibility of the three mosquito species was as follows: A. albopictus > A. barbirostris > C. quinquefascitus. Biochemical changes were also evidenced in third instar larvae of three mosquito species following a sublethal exposure for 24 h. The level of sugar, glycogen, lipids, and proteins was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in larvae treated with H. benghalensis. The acetone root bark extracts of H. benghalensis is less toxic to adults and repelled laboratory-reared female A. barbirostris, A. albopictus, and C. quinquefascitus with the short median protection times of 57.66–135, 72.41–134.16, and 47.66–93 min, respectively. The present investigation proves it as a potent larvicide against A. albopictus, A. barbirostris, and C. quinquefascitus, which can be recommended to control these mosquito species on its breeding site. However, further investigations are needed to confirm the lethal effects of H. benghalensis in field conditions and its impact on the nontarget organisms.


  1. Abbott WS (1925) A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J Econ Entomol 18:265–266Google Scholar
  2. Barnard DR (2000) Repellents and toxicants for personal protection. In: World Health Organization, Department of Control, Prevention and Eradication, Programme on Communicable Diseases, WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES), WHO/CDS/ WHOPES/GCDPP/2000.5, WHO, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  3. Bockarie MJ, Pedersen EM, White GB, Michael E (2009) Role of vector control in the global program to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Annu Rev Entomol 54:469–487PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chandrasekaran B, Annadurai K, Somasundaram E (2010) A Text book of agronomy. New Age International (P) Ltd, New Delhi, pp 120–121Google Scholar
  5. Chang MS, Doraisingam P, Hardin S, Nagum N (1995) Malaria and filariasis transmission in a village/forest setting in Baram District, Sarawak, Malaysia. J Trop Med Hyg 98:192–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Chaubal R, Pawar PV, Hebbalkar GD, Tungikar VB, Puranik VG, Deshpande VH, Deshpande NR (2005) Larvicidal activity of Acacia nilotica extracts and isolation of D-pinitol-a bioactive carbohydrate. Chem Biodivers 2:684–688PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chowdhury N, Chandra G (2007) Phytochemical screening and effects of extracts of Solanum villosum Mill. (Solanales: Solanaceae) on juveniles of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Biospectra 2(2):209–214Google Scholar
  8. Chowdhury N, Bhattacharjee I, Laskar S, Chandra G (2007) Efficacy of Solanum villosum Mill. (Solanaceae: Solanales) as a biocontrol agent against fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Turk J Zoolog 31:365–370Google Scholar
  9. Das NG, Baruah I, Talukdar PK, Das SC (2003) Evaluation of botanicals as repellents against mosquitoes. J Vect Borne Dis 40:49–53Google Scholar
  10. Finney DJ (1971) Probit analysis, 3rd edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  11. Fischer P, Supali T, Maizels RM (2004) Lymphatic filariasis and Brugia timori: prospects for elimination. Trends Parasitol 20:351–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fradin MS, Day JF (2002) Comparative efficacy of insect repellents against mosquito bites. N Engl J Med 347:13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ghosh A, Chandra G (2006) Biocontrol efficacy of Cestrum diurnum L. (Solanaceae: Solanales) against the larval forms of Anopheles stephensi. Nat Pro Res 20:371–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ghosh A, Chowdhury N, Chandra G (2008) Laboratory evaluation of a phytosteroid compound of mature leaves of day jasmine (Solanaceae: Solanales) against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) and nontarget organisms. Parasitol Res 103:221–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gnanasunderam C, Sutherland ORW (1986) Hiptagin and other aliphatic nitro esters in Lotus pedunculatus. Phytochemistry 25(2):409–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jonville MC, Kodja H, Strasberg D, Pichette A, Ollivier E, Frederich M, Angenot L, Legault J (2011) Antiplasmodial, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of various plant extracts from the Mascarene Archipelago. J Ethnopharmacol 136(3):525–531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kamaraj C, Rahuman AA, Bagavan A (2008) Antifeedant and larvicidal effects of plant extracts against Spodoptera litura (F.), Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Parasitol Res 103:325–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kamsuk K, Choochote W, Chaithong U, Jitpakdi A, Tippawangkosol P, Riyong D, Pitasawat B (2007) Effectiveness of Zanthoxylum piperitum-derived essential oil as an alternative repellent under laboratory and field applications. Parasitol Res 100:339–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kaushik R, Saini P (2008) Larvicidal activity of leaf extract of Millingtonia hortensis (Family: Bignoniaceae) against Anopheles stephensi. Culex Quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti J Vector Borne Dis 45:66–69Google Scholar
  20. Khare CP (2007) Indian Medicinal plants: an illustrated dictionary. Springer, New York, p 10013Google Scholar
  21. Lalnundanga (2000) Study of medicinal plants in tropical and sub-tropical semi-ever green forest of Mizoram. Ph.D thesis, Department of Forestry. Northeastern Hill University, Mizoram campus, p 101Google Scholar
  22. Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193:265–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Manquin S, Bangs MJ, Pothikasikorn J, Chareonviriyaphap T (2010) Review on global co-transmission of human Plasmodium species and Wuchereria bancrofti by Anopheles mosquitoes. Infect Genetics Evol 10:159–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Matasyoh JC, Wathuta EM, Kariuki ST, Chepkorir R, Kavulani J (2008) Aloe plant extracts as alternative larvicides for mosquito control. Afr J Biotechnol 7(7):912–915Google Scholar
  25. Murugan M, Mohan VR (2011) Evaluation of phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of Bauhinia purpurea L. and Hiptage benghalensis L. Kurz. J Appl Pharmaceutl Sci 1(9):157–160Google Scholar
  26. Pothikasikorn J, Bangs MJ, Boonplueang R, Chareonviriyaphap T (2008) Susceptibility of various mosquitoes in Thailand to nocturnal subperiodic Wuchereria bancrofti. J Vector Ecol 33:313–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Preet S, Sneha A (2011) Biochemical evidence of efficacy of potash alum for the control of dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus). Parasitol Res 108:1533–1539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rahuman AA, Gopalakrishnan G, Venkatesan P, Geetha K (2008) Larvicidal activity of some Euphorbiaceae plant extracts against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 102:867–873PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rahuman A, Bagavan A, Kamaraj C, Vadivelu M, Abduz Zahir A, Elango G, Pandiyan G (2009) Evaluation of indigenous plant extracts against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 104:637–643PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rajkumar S, Jebanesan A (2004) Mosquitocidal activities of octacosane from Moschosma polystachyum Linn (Lamiaceae). J Ethnopharmacol 90:87–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rajkumar S, Jebanesan A (2005) Scientific Note: oviposition deterrent and skin repellent activities of Solanum trilobatum leaf extract against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi. J Insect Sci 5:15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Rawani A, Ghosh A, Chandra G (2010) Mosquito larvicidal activities of Solanum nigrum L. leaf extract against Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Parasitol Res 107:1235–1240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rezza G (2012) Aedes albopictus and the reemergence of dengue. BMC Publ Health 12:72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Senthilkumar N, Varma P, Gurusubramanian G (2009) Larvicidal and adulticidal activities of some medicinal plants against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi (Liston). Parasitol Res 104:237–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shaalan EA, Canyon DV, Younes MW, Abdel-Wahab H, Mansour AH (2006) Efficacy of eight larvicidal botanical extracts from Khaya saenegalensis and Daucus carota against Culex annulirostris. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 22:433–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Snedecor GW, Cochran WG (1989) Statistical methods, 8th edn. Iowa State University Press, AmesGoogle Scholar
  37. Tawatsin A, Wratten SD, Scott RR, Thavara U, Techadamrongsin Y (2001) Repellency of volatile oils from plants against three mosquito vectors. J Vector Ecol 26:76–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Timmermann, Briegel H (1999) Larval growth and biosynthesis of reserves in mosquitoes. J Insect Physiol 5:461–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Van Handel E (1985a) Rapid determination of glycogen and sugars in mosquitoes. J Am Mosq Cont Assoc 1:299–301Google Scholar
  40. Van Handel E (1985b) Rapid determination of total lipids in mosquitoes. J Am Mosq Cont Assoc 1:302–304Google Scholar
  41. Venkatachalam MR, Jebanesan A (2001) Repellent activity of Ferronia elephantum Corr. (Rutaceae) leaf extract against Aedes aegypti (L.). Bioresource Technol 76:287–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. WHO (1981) Instructions for determining the susceptibility or resistance of mosquito larvae to insecticides. WHO/VBC/81.807. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  43. WHO (1996) Report of the WHO informal consultation on the evaluation and testing of insecticides. Protocols for laboratory and field evaluation of insecticides and repellents. CTD/WHOPES/IC-96.1, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  44. WHO (2009) Dengue—Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control. WHO Press, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. WHO/HTM/NTD/DEN/2009.1, pp.1-147Google Scholar
  45. WHO (2011a) World malaria report: 2011. WHO, Geneva, pp 1–185Google Scholar
  46. WHO (2011b) Global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: progress report on mass drug administration, 2010. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 86(35):377–388Google Scholar
  47. Zhu BCR, Henderson G, Chen F, Fei H, Laine RA (2001) Evaluation of vetiver oil and seven insect-active essential oils against the Formosan subterranean termite. J Chem Ecol 27:1617–1625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lalrotluanga
    • 1
  • Lalchawimawii Ngente
    • 2
  • Senthil Kumar Nachimuthu
    • 3
  • Gurusubramanian Guruswami
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyMizoram UniversityAizawlIndia
  2. 2.Department of ForestryMizoram UniversityAizawlIndia
  3. 3.Department of BiotechnologyMizoram UniversityAizawlIndia

Personalised recommendations