Parasitology Research

, Volume 111, Issue 1, pp 9–36 | Cite as

Tick-borne viruses in Europe

  • Zdenek Hubálek
  • Ivo Rudolf


The aim of this review is to present briefly background information on 27 tick-borne viruses (“tiboviruses”) that have been detected in Europe, viz flaviviruses tick-borne encephalitis (TBEV), louping-ill (LIV), Tyuleniy (TYUV), and Meaban (MEAV); orthobunyaviruses Bahig (BAHV) and Matruh (MTRV); phleboviruses Grand Arbaud (GAV), Ponteves (PTVV), Uukuniemi (UUKV), Zaliv Terpeniya (ZTV), and St. Abb's Head (SAHV); nairoviruses Soldado (SOLV), Puffin Island (PIV), Avalon (AVAV), Clo Mor (CMV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHFV); bunyavirus Bhanja (BHAV); coltivirus Eyach (EYAV); orbiviruses Tribec (TRBV), Okhotskiy (OKHV), Cape Wrath (CWV), Mykines (MYKV), Tindholmur (TDMV), and Bauline (BAUV); two thogotoviruses (Thogoto THOV, Dhori DHOV); and one asfivirus (African swine fever virus ASFV). Emphasis is laid on the taxonomic status of these viruses, range of their ixodid or argasid vectors and vertebrate hosts, pathogenicity for vertebrates including humans, and relevance to public health. In general, three groups of tibovirus diseases can be recognized according to main clinical symptoms produced: (i) febrile illness—usually with a rapid onset, fever, sweating, headache, nausea, weakness, myalgia, arthralgia, sometimes polyarthritis and rash; (ii) the CNS affection—meningitis, meningoencephalitis or encephalomyelitis with pareses, paralysis and other sequelae; (iii) hemorrhagic disease. Several “European” tiboviruses cause very serious human (TBEV, CCHFV) or animal (LIV, ASFV) diseases. Other arboviruses play definite role in human or animal pathology though the disease is usually either less serious or infrequently reported (TYUV, BHAV, AVAV, EYAV, TRBV, DHOV, THOV). The other European arboviruses are “orphans” without a proven medical or veterinary significance (BAHV, MTRV, MEAV, GAV, PTVV, ZTV, SAHV, UUKV, SOLV, PIV, AVAV, CMV, OKHV, CWV, MYKV, TDMV, BAUV). However, certain arbovirus diseases of free-living vertebrates (but also those of domestic animals and even man) may often pass unnoticed or misdiagnosed and eventually, they might potentially appear as emerging diseases. Active search for new tiboviruses or for new, pathogenic variants of the known tiboviruses in Europe should therefore continue.


Larus Meningoencephalitis Vertebrate Host Natural Focus Arthropod Vector 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Complement fixation (test)


Cytopathic effect




Hemagglutination-inhibition (test)








Immunofluorescent antibody assay








Plaque-reduction neutralization test




Transovarial transmission (in arthropods)


Transstadial transmission (in arthropods)


Virus neutralization (test)



This review is based on an extensive literature review conducted as part of the ECDC funded V-borne project “Assessment of the magnitude and impact of vector-borne diseases in Europe”, tender no. OJ/2007/04/13-PROC/2007/003, also using partially EDENext funding (EC grant no. 261504). The contribution is catalogued by the EDENext Steering Committee as EDENext 030. The contents of this publication are the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission or ECDC.


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© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Vertebrate Biology, v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech RepublicBrnoCzech Republic

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