Parasitology Research

, Volume 111, Issue 2, pp 835–839 | Cite as

Molecular identification of Hartmannella vermiformis and Vannella persistens from man-made recreational water environments, Tehran, Iran

  • Mahdieh NazarEmail author
  • Ali Haghighi
  • Niloofar Taghipour
  • Antonio Ortega-Rivas
  • Farid Tahvildar-Biderouni
  • Ehsan Nazemalhosseini Mojarad
  • Mohammad Eftekhar
Original Paper


A survey was conducted on man-made recreational water located in different regions of Tehran, Iran to detect the free-living amoebae present in ponds and fountains of parks and squares. Fifty water samples from 22 municipal districts of Tehran were screened for free-living amoebae and identified by morphological characters and polymerase chain reaction amplification. Amoebae detected were identified as Hartmannella vermiformis (12 %) and Vannella persistens (4 %), which are the first reports of these two amoebas in recreational water environments of Iran. Since, H. vermiformis, which is highly similar to strains serving as hosts for Legionella pneumophila, is a common component of the microbial community in fresh surface water. Although Vannella spp. is not proved to be pathogenic itself, they are capable of harboring pathogenic intracellular organisms. Due to some reports related to pathogenicity of these amoebas, the particular hazard related to these microorganisms should be taken into account in the encounter with drinking and washing in these waters. We recommend control strategies based on physical removal rather than on disinfection to be adopted where necessary.


Keratitis Recreational Water Household Water Municipal District Naked Amoeba 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We acknowledge the support for a Master’s degree from grant no. 12337 to M. Nazar. The authors are indebted to Dr.SJ. Seied-Tabaii, Dr. A. Keshavarz, and Dr. M. Niyati from the Department of Parasitology and Mycology and to M. Bandepour from the Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences for their technical assistance and to Dr. Mariano Hernandez, Department of Molecular Biology, University Institute of Tropical Diseases of Canary Islands, University of La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain in acquaintance with MEGA v.5.0 program.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahdieh Nazar
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ali Haghighi
    • 1
  • Niloofar Taghipour
    • 1
  • Antonio Ortega-Rivas
    • 2
  • Farid Tahvildar-Biderouni
    • 1
  • Ehsan Nazemalhosseini Mojarad
    • 3
  • Mohammad Eftekhar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of MedicineShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.University Institute of Tropical Diseases and Public Health of the Canary IslandsUniversity of La LagunaTenerifeSpain
  3. 3.Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver DiseasesShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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