Parasitology Research

, Volume 111, Issue 1, pp 423–432 | Cite as

The effect of sublethal exposure to temephos and propoxur on reproductive fitness and its influence on circadian rhythms of pupation and adult emergence in Anopheles stephensi Liston—a malaria vector

  • Deepak Sanil
  • Nadikere Jaya Shetty
Original Paper


The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of organophosphate and carbamate insecticides namely, temephos and propoxur respectively, on the life history of Anopheles stephensi Liston (Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. The late third instar larvae of the mosquito were exposed to sublethal concentrations of temephos and propoxur at LC10, LC30 and LC50, respectively, and adult survivors were evaluated for fitness parameters. Sublethal effects were also evaluated in subsequent generations. Fecundity, egg hatchability, sex ratio, adult longevity and morphology of gonads were the end points studied and compared to the untreated control. Adverse changes in developmental traits were mainly observed in fecundity, egg hatchability and sex ratio. However, significant differences in adult longevity were observed in the insecticide-exposed population. Pleiotropic effects through prolonged larval duration and enhanced longevity of adults were observed. Morphology of gonads in the insecticide-exposed population was severely affected and is represented by rudimentary and atrophied testes, and the size of the vas deferens was very much reduced when compared to that of the control. In another set of experiments, circadian rhythm (for pupation and adult emergence) of LC10, LC30 and LC50 values to abovementioned insecticides exposed to late third instar larvae was studied. Pupation and adult emergence rhythms were found to be disturbed with an increase in concentrations of insecticides when compared to that of untreated control.


Malathion Adult Emergence Sublethal Concentration Bifenthrin Adult Longevity 
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This work has been supported by financial assistance from University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi to Prof. N. J. Shetty.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Applied GeneticsBangalore University, J. B. CampusBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Janardhana FoundationBangaloreIndia

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