Parasitology Research

, Volume 111, Issue 1, pp 291–299 | Cite as

Repellent effect of Salvia dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea (Lamiaceae) essential oils against the mosquito Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae)

  • Barbara Conti
  • Giovanni Benelli
  • Michele Leonardi
  • Fatma U. Afifi
  • Claudio Cervelli
  • Raffaele Profeti
  • Luisa Pistelli
  • Angelo Canale
Original Paper

Abstract

Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) has been one of the fastest spreading insects over the past 20 years. Its medical importance is due to the aggressive daytime human-biting behavior and the ability to vector many viruses, including dengue, LaCrosse, Eastern Equine encephalitis and West Nile viruses. In this research, the essential oils (EOs) extracted from fresh air dried leaves of Salvia dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea (Lamiaceae) were evaluated for their repellent activity against A. albopictus by using the human-bait technique. The EOs chemical composition was also investigated, and EOs were divided in three different profiles on the basis of their chemical composition: EO with large amount of monoterpenes from S. sclarea, EO rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenes from S. dorisiana, and S. longifolia EO characterized by similar percentages of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The efficacy protection from S. dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea EOs, at dosages ranging from 0.004 to 0.4 μL cm−2 of skin, was evaluated during 120 min of observation. Results indicated that S. dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea EOs had a significant repellent activity (RD50 = 0.00035, 0.00049, and 0.00101 μL cm−2, respectively), with differences in repellency rates, as a function of oil, dosage, and observation time. S. dorisiana was the most effective oil: at the two higher dosages, it gave almost complete protection (with a protective efficacy of 90.99% and 95.62%, respectively) for 90 min. The best protection time was achieved with S. dorisiana essential oil. It ranged from 9.2 to 92.4 min. Protection times of S. longifolia and S. sclarea oils ranged from 3.2 to 60 min, and from 3.6 to 64.2 min, respectively. Our findings clearly reveal that these EOs have a good repellent activity against A. albopictus, therefore they can be proposed to improve the efficacy of repellent formulations against the Asian tiger mosquito.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Marco Cotrufo and Francesca Baroncelli (Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa) for proofreading the English, and the ten patient volunteers.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barbara Conti
    • 1
  • Giovanni Benelli
    • 1
  • Michele Leonardi
    • 2
  • Fatma U. Afifi
    • 3
  • Claudio Cervelli
    • 4
  • Raffaele Profeti
    • 1
  • Luisa Pistelli
    • 2
  • Angelo Canale
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Tree Science, Entomology and Plant Pathology “G. Scaramuzzi”University of PisaPisaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of PisaPisaItaly
  3. 3.Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of JordanAmmanJordan
  4. 4.CRA-FSO Research Unit for Floriculture and Ornamental SpeciesSanremoItaly

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