Toxoplasma gondii invasion and replication in astrocyte primary cultures and astrocytoma cell lines: systematic review of the literature
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Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan protozoan which infects all homoeothermic species, including humans. This parasite may cause severe neurological problems in congenitally infected newborns or immunocompromised individuals, but it also provokes psychiatric and neurological disorders as well as behavioural and sensory deficit. There is controversy regarding the effect of T. gondii upon astrocytes, which may serve as parasite proliferation recipients or protective immune response activators within the central nervous system. This apparent contradiction could partially be due to the infection degree obtained in the different experiments reported. Thus, we decided to systematically review the in vitro models used to study these phenomena. Fifteen articles from which direct invasion and replication data could be gathered were found. Very heterogeneous results emerged, mainly due to diversity of models in relation to parasite strain (virulence), host species, parasite dose and evaluation times after infection. Also, the results were measured in diverse ways, i.e. some reported percent infected cells, while others informed parasites per vacuole or cell, or parasitic vacuoles per cell. Very few conclusions could be drawn, among them that human astrocytoma cell lines and mouse astrocytes seem more susceptible to infection and less resistant to tachyzoite proliferation than human primary culture astrocytes. The present study supports the need to reanalyse T. gondii astrocyte invasion and replication processes, especially with the use of actual technology, which allows detailed mechanistic studies.
KeywordsAstrocytoma Toxoplasmosis Parasitophorous Vacuole Toxoplasmic Encephalitis Astrocyte Primary Culture
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