Parasitology Research

, Volume 110, Issue 1, pp 373–380 | Cite as

Species diversity and geographic distribution of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea: Ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants, in Qazvin Province, Iran

  • Khadijeh ShemshadEmail author
  • Javad Rafinejad
  • Karim Kamali
  • Norayer Piazak
  • Mohammad Mahdi Sedaghat
  • Masoomeh Shemshad
  • Akbar Biglarian
  • Fathollah Nourolahi
  • Enshallah Valad Beigi
  • Ahmad Ali Enayati
Original Paper


This report presents the results of the first faunistic study of hard ticks in Qazvin province of Iran. The primary objective was to determine the species diversity and geographic distribution of hard ticks that parasitize domestic ruminants. Information about the abiotic preferences of these species has been provided. A total of 286 cattle, 1,053 goats, and 2,050 sheep were examined in 13 villages in 28 flocks distributed throughout the studied areas. Total direct body collections of ticks were made from each domestic ruminant. A total of 228 Ixodid specimens belonging to nine species in three different genera were recorded in the areas, including Boophilus annulatus (Say, 1821), Hyalomma anatolicum Koch, 1844, Hyalomma asiaticum (Schulze and Schlettke, 1929), Hyalomma detritum Schulze, 1919, Hyalomma dromedarii Koch, 1844, Hyalomma marginatum Koch 1844, Hyalomma schulzei Olenev, 1931, Rhipicephalus bursa Canestrini and Fanz, 1878 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806). The most abundant species on sheep was R. sanguineus (46.92%), while B. annulatus (6.6%) found only on cattle. A finding of great significance was that R. sanguineus, the main vector of babesiosis, is firmly established throughout the counties. A further objective of the study was to compare the abundance of the major tick species on domestic ruminants. This was carried out at 19 sampling sites. The highest number of ticks was collected in July–August during the hot season.


Tick Species Plain Area Babesia Tick Infestation Babesiosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to acknowledge Dr. Charkhkar, Dr. Rezaee, Dr. Ekhtiarzadeh, and Dr. Omidvarian for their administrative support. Authors wish to express their appreciation to Dr. Yaghoobi and staff of the Abeyek Veterinary Organization for providing information about sheep flocks and logistic support. The authors wish to express their sincere thanks to Mr. Sadeghi and Mr. Asghari for their helpful hand and technical assistances in the field. The authors are also obliged to rural people and shepherds of the study areas for their cooperation and permission to collect ticks during the entire study period.


  1. Abbasian-Lintzen R (1960) A preliminary list of ticks (Acarina: Ixodidae) occurring in Iran their distributional data. J Acarol 2:43–61Google Scholar
  2. Abbasian-Lintzen R (1961) Records of tick (Acarina: Ixodidae) occurring in Iran and their distributional data. Acarologia 3:546–559Google Scholar
  3. Abbasi-Shavazi MJ (2009) Peter McDonald, Meimanat Hosseini-Chavoshi, "The Fertility Transition in Iran: Revolution and Reproduction". Springer pp 100–101Google Scholar
  4. Aktas M, Dumanli N, Angin M (2004) Cattle infestation by Hyalomma ticks and prevalence of Theileria in Hyalomma species in the east of Turkey. Vet Parasitol 119(1):1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arthur DR (1962) Ticks and diseases. Pergamon, Oxford, p 446Google Scholar
  6. Balashov YS (1972) Bloodsucking ticks (Ixodoidea) vectors of diseases of man and animals. Entomol Soc Amer 8:161–376Google Scholar
  7. Baltazard M, Bahmanyar M, Pournaki R, Mofidi CH, Chama M (1952) Ornithodoros tartakovsky olenev 1931 et Borrelia (Spirochaeta) latychevi Sofiev 1941. Note preliminaire. Annalles de Parasitol Humaine et Comparee 27:311–328Google Scholar
  8. Bouattour A, Daoud A, Darghouth MA (1999) Distribution and ecology of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting livestock in Tunisia: an overview of eight years field collections. J Parasitol 41:5–15Google Scholar
  9. Bowman AS, Coons LB, Needham GR, Sauer JR (1997) Tick saliva: recent advances and implications for vector competence. Med Vet Entomol 11(3):277–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brumpt E (1935) Presentation de deux Ornithodotus canstrinii Bir 1895, vivants originaires d Isphahan (Perse). Bull Soc Path Exot 28:51–53Google Scholar
  11. Delpy L (1936) Note sur les Ixodides du genre Hyalomma (Koch). Annels de Parasitologie 14(3):206–245Google Scholar
  12. Delpy L (1938) Les especes iranienes du genre Haemaphysalis Koch 1844. Annalles de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparee 16(1):1–10Google Scholar
  13. Filippova NA, Neronov VM, Farhang-Azad A (1976) Data on ixodid tick fauna (Acarina, Ixodidae) of small mammals in Iran. Ent Obozr 55:467–479 (In Russian)Google Scholar
  14. Gilot B (1985) Biologie et ecologie de Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latrielle, 1806) (Acarient: Ixodoidea) dans le Sud-est de la France. Sciences Vétérinaires Med Comparée, Charbonnieres Cedex 86(1/2):25–33Google Scholar
  15. Hoogstraal H (1956) African Ixodidae. In: Ticks of the Sudan. Department of the Navy, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, Washington, D.CGoogle Scholar
  16. Hoogstraal H, Valdez R (1980) Ticks (Ixodoidea) from wild sheep and goats in Iran and medical and veterinary implications. Fieldiana Zool 6:1–16Google Scholar
  17. Hoogstraal H, Wassef HY (1979) Haemaphysalis (Allophysalis) Kopetdaghica: identity and discovery of each feeding stage on the wild goat in northern Iran (Ixodoidea: Ixodoidea). J Parasitol 65:783–790PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hooshmand Rad P (1967) The pathogenesis anemia in Theileria annulata infection. Res Vet Sci 20:324–329Google Scholar
  19. Izadi S, Naieni KH, Madjdzadeh SR, Nadim A (2004) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Sistan and Baluchistan province of Iran, a case control study on epidemiological characteristics. Int J Infect Dis 8(5):299–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Janbakhsh B (1956) Report on studies of the tick vectors of relapsing fever in Iran. Rep Inst Par Mal 5th Med Congr Iran pp 34Google Scholar
  21. Keirans JE, Durden LA (2005) Tick systematics and identification. In: Goodman JL, Dennis DT, Sonenshine DE (eds) Tick-borne diseases of humans. ASM, Washington, D.C, p 401Google Scholar
  22. Mazlum Z (1968) Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum. Its distribution, hosts, seasonal activity, life cycle and role in transmission of bovine theileriosis in Iran. Acarologia 10:437–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Mazlum Z (1971) Different ticks occurring in Iran (geographical distribution, seasonal activities, hosts). Bull Facul Vet 27:1–32Google Scholar
  24. Mazlum Z (1972) Tick species of Iran, its distribution, host and seasonal activity (In Persian, with English Abstract). J Vet Fac Univ Tehran Iran 72:1–28Google Scholar
  25. Papadopoulos B, Morel PC, Aeschlimann A (1996) Ticks of domestic animals in the Macedonia region of Greece. Vet Parasitol 63:25–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rahbari S (1995) Studies on some ecological aspects of tick fauna of West Azerbaijan, Iran. J Appl Anim Res 7:189–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Razmi GR, Naghibi A, Aslani MR, Fathivand M, Dastjerdi K (2002) An epidemiological study on ovine Babesiosis in the Mashhad suburb area, Province of Khorasan, Iran. Vet Parasitol 108:109–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Razmi GR, Hosseini M, Aslani MR (2003) Identification of tick vectors of ovine theileriosis in an endemic region of Iran. Vet Parasitol 116:1–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sonenshine DE (1993) Biology of ticks. Oxford University Press, New York, p 463Google Scholar
  30. Tatchell RJ (1969) The significance of host parasite relationship. Acarol II:341–345Google Scholar
  31. Walker AR, Bouattour A, Camicas JL, Estrada-Pena A, Horak IG, Latif A, Pegram RG, Preston PM (2003) Ticks of domestic animals in Africa. A guide to identification of species. Bioscience Reports, Edinburgh, UKGoogle Scholar
  32. Yousfi-Monod R, Aeschlimann A (1986) Studies on ticks (Acarina, Ixodidae), parasites of cattle in West Algeria. I. Systematic survey and seasonal activity. Ann Parasitol Hum Comp 61:341–358PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khadijeh Shemshad
    • 1
    Email author
  • Javad Rafinejad
    • 2
  • Karim Kamali
    • 3
  • Norayer Piazak
    • 4
  • Mohammad Mahdi Sedaghat
    • 2
  • Masoomeh Shemshad
    • 5
  • Akbar Biglarian
    • 6
  • Fathollah Nourolahi
    • 7
  • Enshallah Valad Beigi
    • 7
  • Ahmad Ali Enayati
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyScience and Research Branch, Islamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Entomology, School of AgricultureIslamic Azad University, Science and Research BranchTehranIran
  4. 4.Parasitology DepartmentPasteur Institute of IranTehranIran
  5. 5.Department of Agricultural Extension, School of AgricultureIslamic Azad University, Science and Research BranchTehranIran
  6. 6.Department of BiostatisticsUniversity of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation (USWR)TehranIran
  7. 7.Parasitic and Protozoan Diseases Control OfficeIran Veterinary organizationTehranIran
  8. 8.Department of Medical Entomology, School of Public Health and Health Sciences Research CentreMazandaran University of Medical SciencesSariIran

Personalised recommendations