Advertisement

Parasitology Research

, Volume 110, Issue 1, pp 73–80 | Cite as

Highly debilitating natural Trypanosoma vivax infections in Brazilian calves: epidemiology, pathology, and probable transplacental transmission

  • Jael S. BatistaEmail author
  • Carla M. F. Rodrigues
  • Roberio G. Olinda
  • Taciana M. F. Silva
  • Rodolfo G. Vale
  • Antônio C. L. Câmara
  • Rachiel E. S. Rebouças
  • Francisco Silvestre B. Bezerra
  • Herakles A. García
  • Marta M. G. Teixeira
Original Paper

Abstract

Clinical, epidemiological, and pathological aspects of trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma vivax in calves were reported for the first time in northeast Brazil. Clinical and epidemiological data, packed cell volumes (PCV), and parasitemia were assessed in 150 calves in May 2009 (rainy season—survey 1) and in 153 calves in November 2009 (dry season—survey 2) in three farms (A, B, and C). Prevalence of T. vivax in calves examined in the survey 1 was 63.3%, 65.0%, and 80.0% in farms A, B, and C, respectively. Morbidity varied from 63.3% to 80%, mortality from 15% to 30% and lethality from 23% to 37.5%. In survey 1, for all farms, high parasitemia (from 30.3 to 26.2 × 106 parasites/mL), fever (from 39.8 to 40.3°C), low PCV (from 15.7% to 18.1%), and body score (from 2.5 to 3.5) were detected. Calves showed depression, weight loss, pale mucous membranes, enlarged lymph nodes, edema of the dewlap, cough, coryza, and diarrhea. The animals from farms A and B were treated with diminazene aceturate. Six months after, in survey 2, non-treated calves from farm C showed values for prevalence (81.82), morbidity (81.82), mortality (12.73), and lethality (15.55) similar to those in survey 1 (P > 0.05). Also in survey 2, four calves aging merely 1–3 days old presented high parasitemia levels (from 32 × 106 to 74 × 106 parasites/mL), suggesting transplacental transmission. In conclusion, trypanosomiasis by T. vivax constitutes high prevalent disease for calves raised in Brazilian semiarid and may have transplacental transmission.

Keywords

Pack Cell Volume Vivax Infection Trypanosomiasis High Parasitemia Pale Mucous Membrane 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Bancroft JD, Cook HC (1984) Manual of histological techniques. Churchill Livingstone, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  2. Batista JS, Correa FR, Barbosa RC, Guerra JL (2006) Experimental infection by Trypanosoma vivax in sheep. Pesqui Vet Bras 26:31–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Batista JS, Riet-Correa F, Teixeira MMG, Madruga CR, Simões SDV, Maia TF (2007) Trypanosomosis by Trypanosoma vivax in cattle in the Brazilian semiarid: description of an outbreak and lesions in the nervous system. Vet Parasitol 143:174–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Batista JS, Bezerra FSB, Lira RA, Carvalho JRG, Rosado Neto AM, Petri AA, Teixeira MMG (2008) Clinical, epidemiological and pathological signs of natural infection in cattle by Trypanosoma vivax in Paraiba, Brazil. Pesqui Vet Bras 28:63–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Batista JS, Oliveira AF, Rodrigues CMF, Damasceno CAR, Oliveira IRS, Alves HM, Paiva ES, Brito PD, Medeiros JMF, Rodrigues AC, Teixeira MMG (2009) Infection by Trypanosoma vivax in goats and sheep in the Brazilian semiarid region: from acute disease outbreak to chronic cryptic infection. Vet Parasitol 165:131–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bezerra FSB, Batista JS (2008) Effects of Trypanosoma vivax on reproduction—a review. Acta Vet Bras 2:61–66Google Scholar
  7. Bezerra FSB, García HA, Alves HM, Oliveira IRS, Silva AE, Teixeira MMG, Batista JS (2008) Trypanosoma vivax in testicular and epidydimal tissues of experimentally infected sheep. Pesqui Vet Bras 28:575–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chamond N, Cosson A, Blom-Potar MC, Jouvion G, D'Archivio S, Medina M, Droin-Bergère S, Huerre M, Goyard S, Minoprio P (2010) Trypanosoma vivax infections: pushing ahead with mouse models for the study of Nagana. I. Parasitological, hematological and pathological parameters. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chryssafidis AL, Soares RM, Rodrigues AAR, Carvalho NAT, Gennari SM (2011) Evidence of congenital transmission of Neospora caninum in naturally infected water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) fetus from Brazil. Parasitol Res 108:741–743PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cortez AP, Ventura RM, Rodrigues AC, Batista JS, Paiva F, Añez N, Machado RZ, Gibson WC, Teixeira MMG (2006) The taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of Trypanosoma vivax from South América and Africa. Parasitology 133:159–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cortez AP, Rodrigues AC, Garcia HA, Neves L, Batista JS, Bengaly Z, Paiva F, Teixeira MM (2009) Cathepsin L-like genes of Trypanosoma vivax from Africa and South America—characterisation, relationships and diagnostic implications. Mol Cell Probes 23:44–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Crowe JS, Barry JD, Luckins AG, Ross CA, Vickernun K (1983) All metacyclic variable antigen types of Trypanosoma congolense identified using monoclonal antibodies. Nature 306:389–391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cuglovici DA, Bartholomeu DC, Reis-Cunha JL, Carvalho AU, Ribeiro MF (2010) Epidemiologic aspects of an outbreak of Trypanosoma vivax in a dairy cattle herd in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Vet Parasitol 169:320–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Desquesnes M (2004) Livestock trypanosomoses and their vectors in Latin America. OIE, ParisGoogle Scholar
  15. Dubey JP (2009) Toxoplasmosis in pigs—the last 20 years. Vet Parasitol 164:89–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Espinosa E, Sandoval E, Mavare M, Gonzalez N, Rangel L (2000) Comparación de la serie eritrocítica y leucocítica en ovejas y cabras infectadas con Trypanosoma vivax. Vet Trop 1:29–39Google Scholar
  17. Freitas Júnior JE, Rocha Júnior VR, RennóFP MelloMTP, Carvalho AP, Caldeira LA (2008) Efeito da condição corporal ao parto sobre o desempenho produtivo de vacas mestiças Holandês × Zebu. Rev Bras Zootec 37:116–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. García H, García ME, Pérez G, Bethencourt A, Zerpa E, Pérez H, Mendoza-León A (2006) Trypanosomiasis in Venezuelan water buffaloes: association of packed-cell volumes with seroprevalence and current trypanosome infection. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 100:297–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gardiner PR, Assoku RKG, Whitelaw DD, Murray M (1989) Haemorrhagic lesions resulting from Trypanosoma vivax infection in Ayrshire cattle. Vet Parasitol 31:187–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Guerra RMSNC, Feitosa Júnior AB, Santos HP, Abreu-Silva AL, Santos ACG (2008) Biometry of Trypanosoma vivax found in a calf in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. Cienc Rural 38:833–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gutierrez C, Corbera JA, Morales M, Büscher P (2006) Trypanosomosis in goats: currents status. Ann N Y Acad Sci 108:300–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jones TW, Dávila AMR (2001) Trypanosoma vivax out of Africa. Trends Parasitol 17:99–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kimeto BA, Mugera GM, Nyaga PN (1990) Haemorrhagic pancarditis in cattle infected with Trypanosoma vivax. Vet Parasitol 34:295–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Linhares GFC, Dias-Filho FC, Fernandes PR, Duarte SC (2006) Bovine trypanosomiasis in the municipality of Formoso do Araguaia County, Tocantins, Brazil (case report). Cienc Anim 7:455–460Google Scholar
  25. Losos GJ, Ikede BO (1972) Review of pathology of diseases in domestic and laboratory animals caused by Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax, T. brucei, T. rhodesiense, and T. gambiense. Vet Pathol 9:1–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Masake RA (1980) The pathogenesis of infection with Trypanosoma vivax in goats and cattle. Vet Rec 107:551–557PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Meléndez MF, William F (1993) Perinatal infection with Trypanosoma vivax in a calf in Venezuela. J Parasitol 79:293–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ogwu D, Osori DIK, Njoku CO, Ezeokoli CD, Kumi-Diaka J (1986) Effects of the reproductive status in Zebu heifers on the immunoglobulin M and G levels in bovine Trypanosoma vivax infection. Anim Reprod Sci 12:179–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Okech G, Watson ED, Luckins AG, Makawiti DW (1996a) Effect of Trypanosoma vivax infection on late pregnancy and postpartum return to cyclicity in Boran cattle. Theriogenology 46:859–869PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Okech G, Watson ED, Luckins AG, Makawiti DW (1996b) The effect of experimental infection of Boran cattle in early and mid-pregnancy with Trypanosoma vivax. Br Vet J 152:441–451bPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Oliveira JB, Hernández-Gamboa J, Jiménez-Alfaro C, Zeledón R, Blandón M, Urbina A (2009) First report of Trypanosoma vivax infection in dairy cattle from Costa Rica. Vet Parasitol 163:136–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Osório ALAR, Madruga CR, Desquesnes M, Soares CO, Ribeiro LRR, Costa SCG (2008) Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax: its biology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and introduction in the new world—a review. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 103:1–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Paiva F, Lemos RAA, Nakasato L, Mori AE, Brum KB, Bernardo KC (2000a) Ocorrência de Trypanosoma vivax em bovinos do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. I—Acompanhamento clínico, laboratorial e anatomopatológico de rebanhos infectados. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 9:135–141aGoogle Scholar
  34. Paiva F, Lemos RAA, Nakazato L, Brum KB, Bernardo KC, Madruga CR, Schenk MA (2000b) Trypanosoma vivax em bovinos no pantanal do estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil: II—Inoculação experimental. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 9:143–148bGoogle Scholar
  35. Peters M, Wagner F, Schares G (2000) Canine neosporosis: clinical and pathological findings and first isolation of Neospora caninum in Germany. Parasitol Res 86:1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Razmi GR, Maleki M, Farzaneh N, Garoussi MT, Fallah AH (2007) First report of Neospora caninum-associated bovine abortion in Mashhad area, Iran. Parasitol Res 100:755–757PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rodrigues AC, Garcia HA, Batista JS, Minervino AHH, Góes-Cavalcante G, Silva FM, Ferreira C, Campaner M, Paiva F, Teixeira MMG (2010) Characterization of spliced leader genes of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri: phylogeographical analysis of Brazilian isolates from cattle supports spatial clustering of genotypes and parity with ribosomal markers. Parasitology 137:111–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schmidek A, Costa PMJR, Toledo LM et al. (2004) Mortalidade até a desmama em bovinos das raças Nelore e Guzerá: efeitos de raça, comportamento e morfologia de tetos. In: XXII Encontro Anual de Etologia, Campo GrandeGoogle Scholar
  39. Serra Freire NM (1981) Oiapoque—outro foco de Trypanosoma vivax no Brasil. Rev Bras Med Vet 4:30–31Google Scholar
  40. Shaw JJ, Lainson R (1972) Trypanosoma vivax in Brazil. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 66:25–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Silva RAMS, Dávila AMR (2001) Bovine trypanosomosis due to Trypanosoma vivax in the German Bush province, Bolivia. Parasitology 25:92–95Google Scholar
  42. Silva RAMS, Silva JA, Schneider RC, Freitas J, Mesquita D, Mesquita TC, Ramirez L, Dávila AMR, Pereira EB (1996) Outbreak of trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma vivax (Ziemann, 1905) in bovine of the Pantanal, Brasil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 5:561–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Silva RAMS, Morales G, Eulert E, Montenegro A, Ybañez R (1998) Outbreaks of trypanosomosis due to Trypanosoma vivax in cattle in Bolivia. Vet Parasitol 76:153–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Silva AS, Costa MM, Polenz MF, Polenz CH, Teixeira MMG, Lopes STA, Monteiro SG (2009) First report of Trypanosoma vixax in bovines in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Cienc Rural 39:2550–2554Google Scholar
  45. Stephen LE (1986) Trypanosomisis: a veterinary perspectiva. Pergamon Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. Thrusfield M (2004) Epidemiologia veterinária. Roca, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  47. Vargas TM, Arellano SC (1997) La tripanosomiasis bovina en América Latina y el Caribe. Vet Montividel 33:17–21Google Scholar
  48. Wiengcharoen J, Thompson RCA, Nakthong C, Rattanakorn P, Sukthana Y (2011) Transplacental transmission in cattle: is Toxoplasma gondii less potent than Neospora caninum? Parasitol Res 108:1235–1241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Williams RH, Morley EK, Hughes JM, Duncanson P, Terry RS, Smith JE, Hide G (2005) High levels of congenital transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in longitudinal and cross-sectional studies on sheep farms provides evidence of vertical transmission in ovine hosts. Parasitology 130:301–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jael S. Batista
    • 1
    Email author
  • Carla M. F. Rodrigues
    • 1
  • Roberio G. Olinda
    • 1
  • Taciana M. F. Silva
    • 1
  • Rodolfo G. Vale
    • 1
  • Antônio C. L. Câmara
    • 1
  • Rachiel E. S. Rebouças
    • 1
  • Francisco Silvestre B. Bezerra
    • 1
  • Herakles A. García
    • 2
  • Marta M. G. Teixeira
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Animal SciencesFederal Rural University of the Semiarid (UFERSA)MossoróBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Parasitology, Institute of Biological SciencesUniversity of São Paulo (USP)São PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations