Advertisement

Parasitology Research

, 109:1329 | Cite as

Contact and fumigant toxicity of hexane flower bud extract of Syzygium aromaticum and its compounds against Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae)

  • Asokan Bagavan
  • Abdul Abdul RahumanEmail author
  • Chinnaperumal Kamaraj
  • Gandhi Elango
  • Abdul Abduz Zahir
  • Chidambaram Jayaseelan
  • Thirunavukkarasu Santhoshkumar
  • Sampath Marimuthu
Original Paper

Abstract

The head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer is an obligate ectoparasite of humans that causes pediculosis capitis, a nuisance for millions of people worldwide, with high prevalence in children. P. humanus capitis has been treated by methods that include the physical remotion of lice, various domestic treatments, and conventional insecticides. None of these methods render complete protection, and there is clear evidence for the evolution of resistance and cross-resistance to conventional insecticides. Non-toxic alternative options are hence needed for head lice treatment and/or prevention, and natural products from plants are good candidates for safer control agents that may provide good anti-lice activity. The plant extracts are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. The present study carried out the pediculocidal activity using the hexane flower bud extract of Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtaceae) against P. humanus capitis examined by direct contact and fumigant toxicity (closed- and open-container methods) bioassay. The chemical composition of S. aromaticum flower bud hexane extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major chemical constituent (58.79%) of flower bud hexane extract S. aromaticum was identified as chavibetol (5-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) by comparison of mass spectral data and retention times. The hexane extract of S. aromaticum was subjected to gas chromatography analysis, and totally 47 compounds were detected, of which chavibetol was predominantly present. The other major constituents present in the hexane extract were eugenol acetate (phenol,2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)-,acetate (15.09%), caryophyllene-(I1) (2,6,10,10-tetramethyl bicyclo [7.2.0] undeca-1,6-diene (13.75%), caryophyllene oxide (3.04%), 2,6,6,9-tetramethyl-1,4,8-cycloundecatriene (1.67%), and copaene (1.33%). The filter paper contact bioassay study showed pronounced pediculicidal activity in the flower bud hexane extract of S. aromaticum. The toxic effect was determined for every five in an 80-min treatment. The result showed percent mortality of 40, 82, and 100 at 5, 10, and 20 min, and the median lethal time (LT50) value was 5.83 (0.5 mg/cm2); 28, 82, and 100 at 5, 10, and 30 min. (LT50 = 6.54; 0.25 mg/cm2); and 13, 22, 42, 80, and 100 at 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 min (LT50 = 18.68; 0.125 mg/cm2), respectively. The vapor phase toxicity was tested at 0.25 mg/cm2. There was a significant difference in pediculicidal activity of S. aromaticum extract against P. humanus capitis between closed- and open-container methods. Adult mortalities were determined for every five in 60 min (closed method) and for every ten in 180 min (open method). The closed method showed the percent mortality was 45, 88, and 100 at 5, 10, and 15 min (LT50 = 5.39), respectively. In the open-container method, the percent mortality was observed 5, 20, 47, 84, and 100 at 10, 20, 60, 120, and 180 min (LT50 = 47.91), respectively. The mortality was more effective in the closed containers than in open ones, indicating that the effect of hexane extract was largely a result of action in the vapor phase exhibited fumigant toxicity. Studies of anti-lice activity of extract provide the basis for preliminary conclusions of structure activity relationships; although no clear patterns can yet be drawn. We here attempt to provide a concise compilation of the available information on anti-lice activity of plant extracts and plant-derived compounds.

Keywords

Eugenol Head Louse Fumigant Toxicity Eugenyl Acetate Eugenyl 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abdel-Ghaffar F, Semmler M (2007) Efficacy of neem seed extract shampoo on head lice of naturally infected humans in Egypt. Parasitol Res 100:329–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdel-Ghaffar F, Semmler M, Al-Rasheid K, Klimpel S, Mehlhorn H (2010a) Efficacy of a grapefruit extract on head lice: a clinical trial. Parasitol Res 106(2):445–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abdel-Ghaffar F, Semmler M, Al-Rasheid K, Mehlhorn H (2010b) Comparative in vitro tests on the efficacy and safety of 13 anti-head lice products. Parasitol Res 106:423–429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alkinson I, Clore ER, Kisel BE, Posch J (1986) Internal and external parasites. Pediatrics 1:1–7Google Scholar
  5. Ally MM (1960) Preliminary observations on the pharmacology of Betel leaf. Proc Pan Indian Ocean Sci Congr, 4th, Karachi, Pakistan Sect G p. 31. CA 61:7363eGoogle Scholar
  6. Angel T, Nigo J, Levy M (2000) Pediatric dermatology: infestations in the pediatric patient. Pediatric Clin North Am 47:921–935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aschner M, Mager J (1945) Evaluation of materials for louse control. Ann Appl Biol 32:143–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Audino GP, Vassena C, Zerba E, Picollo M (2007) Effectiveness of lotions based on essential oils from aromatic plants against permethrin resistant Pediculus humanus capitis. Arch Dermatol Res 299:389–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bagavan A, Rahuman AA, Kaushik NK, Sahal D (2011) In vitro antimalarial activity of medicinal plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum. Parasitol Res 108(1):15–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bhattacharya S, Mula S, Gamre S, Kamat JP, Bandyopadhyay SK, Chattopadhyay S (2007) Inhibitory property of Piper betel extract against photosensitization-induced damages to lipids and proteins. Food Chem 100:1474–1480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burkhart CN (2003) Fomite transmission with head lice: a continuing controversy. Lancet 361(9352):99–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burkhart CG, Burkhart CN (2000) Clinical evidence of lice resistance to over-the-counter products. J Cutan Med Surg 4(4):199–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Burkhart CG, Burkhart CG (2001) Recommendation to standardize pediculicidal and ovicide testing for head lice (Anoplura: Pediculidae). J Med Entomol 38:127–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Burkhart CN, Burkhart CG (2004) Head lice revisited: in vitro standardized tests and differences in malathion formulations. Arch Dermatol 140(4):488–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Burkhart CG, Burkhart CN (2006a) Asphyxiation of lice with topical agents, not a reality … yet. J Am Acad Dermatol 54(4):721–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burkhart CG, Burkhart CN (2006b) Safety and efficacy of pediculicides for head lice. Expert Opin Drug Saf 5(1):169–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cai L, Wu CD (1996) Compounds from Syzygium aromaticum possessing growth inhibitory activity against oral pathogens. J Nat Prod 59(10):987–990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carpinella MC, Miranda M, Almirón WR, Ferrayoli CG, Almeida FL, Palacios SM (2007) In vitro pediculicidal and ovicidal activity of an extract and oil from fruits of Melia azedarach L. J Am Acad Dermatol 56(2):250–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chaieb K, Hajlaoui H, Zmantar T, Kahla-Nakbi AB, Rouabhia M, Mahdouani K, Bakhrouf A (2007) The chemical composition and biological activity of clove essential oil, Eugenia caryophyllata (Syzigium aromaticum L. Myrtaceae): a short review. Phytother Res 21(6):501–506PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cheng LPL, Ho SH, Sim KY, Tan HTW (1994) Potential of cloves (Syzygium aromaticum L.) Merr. And Rerry as a grain protectant against Tribolium castaneum(Herbst) and Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. Postharvest Biol Technol 4:179–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Coats JR, Karr LL, Drewes CD (1991) Toxicity and neurotoxic effects of monoterpenoids in insects and earthworms. In: Hedin PA (ed) Naturally occuring pest bioregulators ACS symposium series 449. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 305–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cueto GM, Gonzalez Audino P, Vassena CV, Picollo MI, Zerba EN (2002) Toxic effect of aliphatic alcohols against susceptible and permethrin-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae). J Med Entomol 39:457–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cueto GM, Zerba E, Picollo MI (2008) Evidence of pyrethroid resistance in eggs of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) from Argentina. J Med Entomol 45:693–697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dewich M (ed) (2002) Medicinal natural products: a biosynthetic approach, 2nd edn. Wiley, Chichester, p 507Google Scholar
  25. Dolianitis C, Sinclair R (2002) Optimal treatment of head lice: is a no-nit policy justified? Clin Dermatol 20:94–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. dos Santos BC, da Silva JC, Guerrero PG Jr, Leitão GG, Barata LE (2009) Isolation of chavibetol from essential oil of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus leaf by high-speed counter-current chromatography. J Chromatogr A 1216(19):4303–4306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Doucet M, Miranda M, Arce MA (1997) Prevalences of Pediculus humanus capitis and Sarcoptes scabiei in primary schools of Córdoba, Argentina. Analysis in relation to sex, age and socioeconomic conditions. Res Rev Parasitol 57:67–69Google Scholar
  28. Downs AM, Stafford KA, Coles GC (1999) Head lice: prevalence in school children and insecticide resistance. Parasitol Today 15:1–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. El Hag EA, El Nadi AH, Zaiton AA (1999) Toxic and growth retarding effects of three plant extracts on Culex pipiens larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). Phytother Res 13:388–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gallardo A, Mougabure Cueto G, Picollo MI (2009) Pediculus humanus capitis (head lice) and Pediculus humanus humanus (body lice): response to laboratory temperature and humidity and susceptibility to monoterpenoids. Parasitol Res 105:163–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Goates BM, Atkin JS, Wilding KG, Birch KG, Cottam MR, Bush SE, Clayton DH (2006) An effective nonchemical treatment for head lice: a lot of hot air. Pediatrics 118(5):1962–1970PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gratz NG (1997) Human lice, their prevalence, control and resistance to insecticides; a review, 1985–97. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, Division Control Tropical Diseases, WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme, 1997. Report WHO/CTD/WHOPES/97.8, 7: 176–179Google Scholar
  33. Hayes JB Jr, Laws ER Jr (1991) Handbook of pesticide toxicology, vol 1. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  34. Heukelbach J, Oliveira F, Speare R (2006a) A new shampoo based on neem (Azadirachta indica) is highly effective against head lice in vitro. Parasitol Res 99:353–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Heukelbach J, Speare R, Canyon D (2006b) Natural products and their application to the control of head lice: an evidence-based review. In: Brahmachari G (ed) Chemistry of natural products: recent trends and development. Kerala, India, pp 1–26Google Scholar
  36. Heukelbach J, Canyon DV, Oliveira FA, Muller R, Speare R (2008) In vitro efficacy of over-the-counter botanical pediculicides against the head louse Pediculus humanus var capitis based on a stringent standard for mortality assessment. Med Vet Entomol 22:264–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ho SH, Cheng LPL, Sim KY, Tan HTW (1994) Potential of cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) (L.) Merr. and Perry as a grain protectant against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. Posthar Vest Biol Technol 4:179–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Isman MB (1999) Pesticides based on plant essential oils. Pestic Outlook 68–72Google Scholar
  39. Jantan IB, Ahmad AR, Ahmad AS, Ali NAM (1994) A comparative study of the essential oils of five Piper species from Peninsular Malasya. Flav Fragr J 9:339–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jayaseelan C, Rahuman AA, Rajakumar G, Vishnu Kirthi A, Santhoshkumar T, Marimuthu S, Bagavan A, Kamaraj C, Zahir AA, Elango G (2011) Synthesis of pediculocidal and larvicidal silver nanoparticles by leaf extract from heartleaf moonseed plant. Tinospora cordifolia Miers. Parasitol Res. doi: 10.1007/s00436-010-2242-y Google Scholar
  41. Kim Eh, Kim HK, Ahn YJ (2003) Acaricidal activity of clove bud oil compounds against Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae). J Agric Food Chem 51(4):885–889PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kirthi AV, Rahuman AA, Rajakumar G, Marimuthu S, Santhoshkumar T, Jayaseelan C, Velayutham K (2011) Acaricidal, pediculocidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles using wet chemical route against blood feeding parasites. Parasitol Res. doi: 10.1007/s00436-011-2277-8 Google Scholar
  43. Kristensen M, Knorr M, Rasmussen AM, Jespersen JB (2006) Survey of permethrin and malathion resistance in human head lice populations from Denmark. J Med Entomol 43:533–538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kumar P, Singh DK (2006) Molluscicidal activity of Ferula asafoetida, Syzygium aromaticum and Carum carvi and their active components against the snail Lymnaea acuminata. Chemosphere 63(9):1568–1574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Linardi PM, Botelho JR, Maria M (1988) Crendices e falsos conceitos que dificultam acoes profilaticas contra o piolho e a pediculose capitis. Pediatria 64:248–255Google Scholar
  46. Machado M, Dinis AM, Salgueiro L, Custódio JB, Cavaleiro C, Sousa MC (2011) Anti-Giardia activity of Syzygium aromaticum essential oil and eugenol: Effects on growth, viability, adherence and ultrastructure. Exp Parasitol 127(4):732–739PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mehlhorn B, Mehlhorn H (2009) Louse alarm. Düsseldorf University Press, DüsseldorfGoogle Scholar
  48. Mehlhorn H, Eichenlaub D, Löscher T, Peters W (1995) Diagnosis and therapy of human parasites, 2nd edn. G. Fischer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  49. Meinking T, Entzel P, Villar ME, Vicaria M, Lemard G, Porcelain S (2001) Comparative efficacy of treatments for Pediculosis capitis infestations. Arch Dermatol 137:287–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Momin RA, Ramsewak RS, Nair MG (2000) Bioactive compounds and 1,3-Di[(cis)-9-octadecenoyl]-2-[(cis, cis)-9, 12-octadecadienoyl]glycerol from Apium graveolens L. seeds. J Agric Food Chem 48(9):3785–3788PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Morsy TA, el-Ela RG, Nasser MM, Khalaf SA, Mazyad SA (2000) Evaluation of the in-vitro pediculicidal action of four knock insecticides and three medicinal plant extracts. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 30(3):699–708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Mulla M, Su T (1999) Activity and biological effects of neem products against arthropods of medical and veterinary importance. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 15(2):133–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Mumcuoglu KY (1999) Prevention and treatment of head lice in children. Paediatr Drugs 1(3):211–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mumcuoglu KY, Miller J, Zamir C, Zentner G, Helbin V, Ingber A (2002) The in vivo pediculicidal efficacy of a natural remedy. Isr Med Assoc J 4(10):790–793PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Mumcuoglu KY, Meinking TA, Burkhart CN, Burkhart CG (2006) Head louse infestations: the "no nit" policy and its consequences. Int J Dermatol 45(8):891–896PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ninci M (1991) Prophylaxis and treatment of pediculosis with Quassia amarga. Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba 49(2):27–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Oladimeji FA, Orafidiya OO, Ogunniyi TA, Adewunmi TA (2000) Pediculocidal and scabicidal properties of Lippia multiflora essential oil. J Ethnopharmacol 72(2):305–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Park IK, Shin SC (2005) Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from garlic (Allium sativum) and clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata) oils against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus). J Agric Food Chem 53:4388–4392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Perrucci S, Macchioni G, Cioni PL, Flamini G, Morelli I (1995) Structure/activity relationship of some natural monoterpenes as acaricides against Psoroptes cuniculi. J Nat Prod 8:1261–1264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Picollo MI, Vassena C, Casadio A, Massimo J, Zerba E (1998) Laboratory studies of susceptibility and resistance to insecticides in Pediculus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae). J Med Entomol 35:814–817PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Picollo MI, Vassena C, Mougabure Cueto G, Vernetti M, Zerba E (2000) Resistance to insecticides and effect of synergists on permethrin toxicity in Pediculus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae) from Buenos Aires. J Med Entomol 37:721–725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Priestley C, Burgess IF, Williamson E (2006) Lethality of essential oil constituents towards the human louse, Pediculus humanus, and its eggs. Fitoterapia 77(4):303–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Reddy PJ, Krishna D, Murthy US, Jamil K (1992) A microcomputer FORTRAN program for rapid determination of lethal concentration of biocides in mosquito control. Comput Appl Biosci 8:209–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Rimando AM, Han BH, Park JH, Cantoria MC (1986) Studies on the constituents of Philippine Piper betle leaves. Arch Pharm Res 9:93–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Robles AP (2004) Comparative efficacy of tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum), makabuhay (Tinosphora rumphi), tubli (Derris philippinensis), and neem (Azadirachta indica) against carabao louse (Haematopinus tuberculatus). In: Maala CP, Landicho EF, Sarabia AS, Del Barrio AN, Ataby EP (eds) Abstract of Researches on the Philippine water buffalo. Philippine Carabao Center, The Philippine, pp 139–140Google Scholar
  66. Rossini C, Castillo L, González A (2008) Plant extracts and their components as potential control agents against human head lice. Phytochem Rev 7:51–63.Google Scholar
  67. Rozendaal JA (1997) Methods for use by individuals and communities. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  68. Schmahl G, Al-Rasheid KA, Abdel-Ghaffar F, Klimpel S, Mehlhorn H (2010) The efficacy of neem seed extracts (Tre-san, MiteStop) on a broad spectrum of pests and parasites. Parasitol Res 107(2):261–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Semmler M, Abdel-Ghaffar F, Al-Rasheid K, Mehlhorn H (2009) Nature helps: from research to products against blood-sucking arthropods. Parasitol Res 105(6):1483–1487PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Semmler M, Abdel-Ghaffar F, Al-Rasheid K, Klimpel S, Mehlhorn H (2010) Repellency against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis). Parasitol Res 106(3):729–731PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Speare R, Canyon DV, Melrose W (2006) Quantification of blood intake of the head louse: Pediculus humanus capitis. Int J Dermatol 45:543–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sunilson JSAJ, Suraj R, Rejitha G, Anandarajagopal K, Vimala AG, Husain HA (2009) In vitro screening of anti-lice activity of Pongamia pinnata leaves. Korean J Parasitol 47(4):377–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Takano-Lee M, Edman JD, Mullens BA, Clark JM (2004) Home remedies to control head lice: Assessment of home remedies to control the human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae). J Pediatric Nurs 19(6):393–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Taplin D, Meinking TL (1987) Pyrethrin and pyrethroids for the treatment of scabies and pediculosis. Semin Dermatol 6:125–135Google Scholar
  75. Tiangda CH, Gritsanapan W, Sookvanichsilp N, Limchalearn A (2000) Anti-headlice activity of a preparation of Annona squamosa seed extract. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 31(1):174–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Toloza AC, Zygadlo J, Cueto GM, Biurrun F, Zerba E, Picollo MI (2006) Fumigant and repellent properties of essential oils and component compounds against permethrin-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae) from Argentina. J Med Entomol 43(5):889–895PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Toloza A, Vassena C, Gallardo A, González-Audino P, Picollo MI (2009) Epidemiology of Pediculosis capitis in elementary schools of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Parasitol Res 104(6):1295–1298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Toloza AC, Lucía A, Zerba E, Masuh H, Picollo MI (2010a) Eucalyptus essential oil toxicity against permethrin-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae). Parasitol Res 106(2):409–414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Toloza AC, Zygadlo J, Biurrun F, Rotman A, Picollo MI (2010b) Bioactivity of Argentinean essential oils against permethrinresistant head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis. J Insect Sci 10:185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Trongtokit Y, Rongsriyam Y, Komalamisra N, Apiwathnasorn C (2005) Comparative repellency of 38 essential oils against mosquito bites. Phytother Res 19:303–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Veal L (1996) The potential effectiveness of essential oils as a treatment for headlice, Pediculus humanus capitis. Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery 2:97–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Williamson EM (2007) The medicinal use of essential oils and their components for treating lice and mite infestations. Natural Prod Commun 2:1199–1336Google Scholar
  83. Williamson EM, Priestley CM, Burgess IF (2007) An investigation and comparison of the bioactivity of selected essential oils on human lice and house dust mites. Fitoterapia 78:521–525PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Yang YC, Lee SH, Lee WJ, Choi DH, Ahn YJ (2003) Ovicidal and adulticidal effects of Eugenia caryophyllata bud and leaf oil compounds on Pediculus capitis. J Agric Food Chem 51:4884–4888PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Yang YC, Choi HY, Choi WS, Clark JM, Ahn YJ (2004a) Ovicidal and adulticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus leaf oil terpenoids against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae). J Agric Food Chem 52:2507–2511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Yang YC, Lee HS, Clark JM, Ahn YJ (2004b) Insecticidal activity of plant essential oils against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae). J Med Entomol 41(4):699–704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Yang YC, Lee HS, Lee SH, Clark JM, Ahn YJ (2005) Ovicidal and adulticidal activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark essential oil compounds and related compounds against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae). Int J Parasitol 35(14):1595–1600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Asokan Bagavan
    • 1
  • Abdul Abdul Rahuman
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chinnaperumal Kamaraj
    • 1
  • Gandhi Elango
    • 1
  • Abdul Abduz Zahir
    • 1
  • Chidambaram Jayaseelan
    • 1
  • Thirunavukkarasu Santhoshkumar
    • 1
  • Sampath Marimuthu
    • 1
  1. 1.Unit of Nanotechnology and Bioactive Natural Products, Post Graduate and Research Department of ZoologyC. Abdul Hakeem CollegeVellore DistrictIndia

Personalised recommendations