Parasitology Research

, Volume 109, Issue 6, pp 1571–1576 | Cite as

Genetic diversity of the malaria vaccine candidate merozoite surface protein 1 gene of Plasmodium vivax field isolates in Republic of Korea

  • Eun-Taek HanEmail author
  • Yue Wang
  • Chae Seung Lim
  • Jun Hwi Cho
  • Jong-Yil ChaiEmail author
Original Paper


The Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 (Pvmsp-1) locus codes for a major asexual blood-stage antigen currently proposed as a malaria vaccine candidate antigen. However, extensive polymorphism of this protein has been observed in isolates from different geographical areas. Here, we investigate the extent and the frequency of allelic diversity at the Pvmsp-1 locus in field isolates collected in the Republic of Korea during the past decade. Among the 45 Korean isolates, six Pvmsp-1 gene types (SKOR-I to SKOR-VI) were identified as unique combinations of type sequences in each variable block. Of these six different Pvmsp-1 gene types, two major Pvmsp-1 allelic types were found in 72% (SKOR-I) and 28% (SKOR-II) of field isolates collected in 1996 to 2000, and four different allelic types (SKOR-III to SKOR-VI) emerged in 70% (10–25%) of isolates collected in 2007 to 2009. These results suggest that allelic diversity of Pvmsp-1 increased in several variable regions, including the N- and C-terminals, after reemergence of P. vivax parasites in the Republic of Korea.


Malaria Type Sequence Allelic Type Korean Isolate Recombinant Type 
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This work was supported by a Korean Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) grant funded by the Korean Government (MOST; no. R01-2007-000-11260-0) and National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Korean Government (2009-0075103).

Supplementary material

436_2011_2413_MOESM1_ESM.doc (50 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 1 Amino acid sequence comparison for each of six variable regions in Pvmsp-1 from Korean and worldwide isolates. Alignment of the sequence is based on a previous report (Putaporntip et al. 2002). Dashes indicate deletions. Short tandem repeats are in italic bold text with conserved sequences indicated in gray. The asterisk indicates a new type sequence identified in this study. (DOC 49 kb)
436_2011_2413_MOESM2_ESM.doc (42 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 2 Amino acid sequence alignment of Pvmsp-1 conserved blocks from Korean isolates. The sequences were compared with Sal-1 and Belem type sequences. SKOR67, SKOR86, and SKOR83 sequences belong to SKOR-I, SKOR69 sequences to SKOR-II, SKOR0803 sequences to SKOR-III, SKOR0808 sequences to SKOR-IV, SKOR0804 sequences to SKOR-V, and SKOR0814 sequences to SKOR-VI allelic type. Single asterisk sequence that differs from those of the Sal-1 and Belem strains, colon dimorphic sequence, line deletion. Sal-1 and Belem type sequences are indicated by capital and italic text, respectively. Bold letters represent unique sequences from the Korean isolates. Amino acid positions shown above are after the Sal-1 sequence. CB conserved block. (DOC 41 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ParasitologyKangwon National University School of MedicineChuncheonRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Institute of Medical ScienceKangwon National University School of MedicineChuncheonRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Institute of Parasitic DiseasesZhejiang Academy of Medical SciencesHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Department of Laboratory Medicine, College of MedicineKorea UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  5. 5.Department of Emergency MedicineKangwon National University School of MedicineChuncheonRepublic of Korea
  6. 6.Department of Parasitology and Tropical MedicineSeoul National University College of MedicineSeoulRepublic of Korea

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