Mucosal Leishmania infantum infection
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Mucosal leishmaniasis is a well-known clinical manifestation of infections caused by species belonging to the Leishmania (Viannia) subgenus in Central and South America but not of Leishmania species endemic in the so-called Old World. We report on three cases of mucosal leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum contracted in southern Europe. Two patients were immunocompromised; one patient had no underlying condition. Lesions were located in the oral mucosa, oesophagus and nose. All lesions relapsed under standard treatment with liposomal amphotericin B. A cure was achieved after secondary and extended treatment with liposomal amphotericin B or miltefosine. Mucosal leishmaniasis contracted in southern Europe has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of lesions in the naso–buccal–oesophageal mucosa and may occur in previously healthy persons.
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