Parasitology Research

, Volume 109, Issue 3, pp 627–635 | Cite as

Neutrophil and eosinophil chemotactic factors in the excretory/secretory products of sheep abomasal nematode parasites

NCF and ECF in abomasal nematodes
  • Stefanie Reinhardt
  • Ian Scott
  • Heather V. SimpsonEmail author
Original Paper


Both eosinophil chemotactic factor (ECF) and neutrophil chemotactic factor (NCF) activities were demonstrated in excretory/secretory (ES) products and homogenates of Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta larvae and adult worms in a modified checkerboard assay using a micro-chemotaxis chamber. Neutrophil chemotaxis was seen in 28 of 35 experiments and eosinophil chemotaxis in 20 of 38 experiments. Chemokinetic activity for neutrophils and eosinophils (accounting for 40–50% of total cell migration) was also apparent in only three parasite products for each cell type. Significant NCF activity was present in six of seven adult worm ES products (three of four from T. circumcincta and in all three from H. contortus) and ECF activity in four of five adult ES products, whereas fewer L3 incubates, particularly of T. circumcincta, contained chemotactic activity. All parasite homogenates, with one exception for ECF, were chemotactic for both neutrophils and eosinophils. The sequential use of cellulose ultrafiltration membranes of decreasing pore size did not identify precisely the molecular weight of the NCF and ECF but indicated that the active chemicals were greater than 10 kDa and probably greater than 30 kDa.


Adult Worm Neutrophil Chemotactic Factor Eosinophil Chemotaxis Teat Canal Chitinase Family 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We wish to thank Meat and Wool New Zealand and the E. & C. Thoms Bequest for financial support for this work. These experiments comply with the current laws of New Zealand.

Supplementary material

436_2011_2305_MOESM1_ESM.doc (52 kb)
Supplementary Table 1 Preparation of ES products from adult and exsheathed L3 T. circumcincta and H. contortus and subsequent parasite extracts (DOC 51 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefanie Reinhardt
    • 1
  • Ian Scott
    • 2
  • Heather V. Simpson
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.S. Reinhardt and B.Ullrich, Tierärztliche GemeinschaftspraxisTostedtGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical SciencesMassey UniversityPalmerston NorthNew Zealand

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