Parasitology Research

, Volume 107, Issue 2, pp 433–437 | Cite as

Light and scanning electron microscopic investigations on MiteStop®-treated poultry red mites

  • Nina Locher
  • Sven Klimpel
  • Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar
  • Khaled A. S. Al Rasheid
  • Heinz MehlhornEmail author
Original Paper


Recent studies of the neem seed product MiteStop® showed that it has a good acaricidal effect against all developmental stages of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae. In vitro tests proved an efficacy at direct contact, as well as by fumigant toxicity. Light and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) investigations showed no clear, morphologically visible signs of an effect caused by fumigant toxicity. Direct contact with the neem product, however, seemed to be of great impact. Chicken mites turned dark brown or even black after being treated with the neem product. SEM analysis showed damages along the body surface of the mites.


Diatomaceous Earth Newcastle Disease Virus Azadirachtin Coxiella Burnetii Poultry House 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to thank all the members of the Institute of Zoomorphology, Zoobiology and Parasitology of the Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf and of Alpha-Biocare GmbH (Germany) for their support. Furthermore, we thank Prof. Dr. Schein (Freie Universität Berlin, Germany) for his cooperation. We also acknowledge the grateful support of the Center of Excellence of the College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.


  1. Abdel-Ghaffar F, Sobhy HM, Quraishy SA, Semmler M (2008) Field study on the efficacy of an extract of neem seed (MiteStop®) against the red mite Dermanyssus gallinae naturally infecting poultry in Egypt. Parasitol Res 103:481–485CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdel-Ghaffar F, Semmler M, Rasheid KAS, Mehlhorn H (2009) In vitro efficacy of ByeMite® and MiteStop® on developmental stages of the red chicken mite Dermanyssus gallinae. Parasitol Res 105:1469–1471CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Beugnet F, Chauve C, Gauthey M, Beert L (1997) Resistance of poultry red mite to pyrethroids in France. Vet Rec 140:577–579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Chauve C (1998) The poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer, 1778: current situation and future prospects for control. Vet Parasitol 79:239–245CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Chirico J, Eriksson H, Fossum O, Jansson D (2003) The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, a potential vector of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae causing erysipelas in hens. Med Vet Entomol 17:232–234CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Kirkwood AC (1967) Anaemia in poultry Infested with the red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. Vet Rec 80(17):514–516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Locher N (2009) Untersuchungen zur Wirksamkeit eines Neem-Präparates (Mite-Stop®) auf die Entwicklungsstadien der Roten Vogelmilbe Dermanyssus gallinae. Free University Berlin, Germany, Doctoral ThesisGoogle Scholar
  8. Locher N, Al-Rasheid KAS, Abdel-Ghaffar F, Mehlhorn H (2010) In vitro and field studies on the contact and fumigant toxicity of a neem-product (Mite-Stop®) against the developmental stages of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. Parasitol Res. doi: 10.1007/S00436-010-1882-2 Google Scholar
  9. Lundh J, Wiktelius D, Chirico J (2005) Azadirachtin-impregnated traps for the control of Dermanyssus gallinae. Vet Parasitol 130:337–342CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Maurer G (1985) Untersuchungen zur Wirkung von Neem-Extrakten (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae) auf Vorratsschädlinge sowie Erprobung von Methoden zur Prüfung von Neem-Extrakten verschiedener Herkunft. Doctoral Thesis, Giessen, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  11. Mewis I, Ulrichs C (1999) Wirkungsweise amorpher Diatomeenerden auf vorratsschädliche Insekten. Untersuchung der abrasiven sowie sorptiven Effekte. J Pest Sci 72:113–121Google Scholar
  12. Moro CV, Chauve C, Zenner L (2007) Experimental infection of Salmonella enteriditis by the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae. Vet Parasitol 146:329–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mul M, Van Niekerk T, Chirici J et al (2009) Control methods for Dermanyssus gallinae in systems of laying hens. Results of an international seminar. World Poultry Sci J 65:589–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mulla MS, Su T (1999) Activity and biological effects of neem products against arthropods of medical and veterinary importance. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 15(2):133–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Nordenfors H, Höglund J, Tauson R, Chirico J (2001) Effects of permethrin impregnated plastic strips on Dermanyssus gallinae in loose-housing systems for laying hens. Vet Parasitol 102:121–131CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Pospischil R (2001) Die Rote Vogelmilbe Dermanyssus gallinae (Acarina, Mesostigmata, Dermanyssidae): Biologie und Bekämpfung. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Allgemeine und Angewandte Entomologie e.V., 15. Jahrgang, Heft 4Google Scholar
  17. Pritchard MH, Kruse GOW (1982) The collection and preservation of animal parasites. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. Schmahl G, Al-Rasheid KA, Abdel-Ghaffar F, Klimpel S, Mehlhorn H (2010) The efficacy of neem seed extracts Tre-san®, MiteStop® on a broad spectrum of pests and parasites. Parasitol Res epub ahead of printGoogle Scholar
  19. Schmutterer H (2002) The neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and other meliaceous plants, Neem Foundation, MumbaiGoogle Scholar
  20. Smith MG, Blattner RJ, Heys FM (1945) Further isolation of St.-Louis encephalitis virus – congenital transfer of virus in chicken mite (Dermanyssus gallinae). Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 59:136–138Google Scholar
  21. Sparangano O, Pavlicevic A, Murano T, Camarda A, Sahibi H, Kilpinen O, Mul M, van Emous R, le Bouquin S, Hoel K, Cafiero MA (2009) Prevalence and key figures for the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae infections in poultry farm systems. Exp Appl Acarol 48:3–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Van Emous R (2006) Practical method for on-farm monitoring of Red Mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) infestation. Seminar “Control methods for Dermanyssus gallinae in systems for laying hens”, WageningenGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nina Locher
    • 1
  • Sven Klimpel
    • 2
  • Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar
    • 3
  • Khaled A. S. Al Rasheid
    • 4
  • Heinz Mehlhorn
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of ParasitologyHeinrich Heine UniversityDüsseldorfGermany
  2. 2.Biodiversity and Climate Research Center (BIK-F)Johann Wolfgang Goethe UniversityFrankfurt/MainGermany
  3. 3.Department of ZoologyCairo UniversityGizaEgypt
  4. 4.Department of Zoology, Center of Excellence, College of ScienceKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations