Life cycle and attacks of ectoparasites on ruminants during the year in Central Europe: recommendations for treatment with insecticides (e.g., Butox®)
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The occurrence of ectoparasites on ruminants throughout the yearly seasons was compiled from the literature and from our own experiments that were based on ultraviolet trap catches during the years 2007–2009. The data were listed in tables, which also contained details on the life cycles of flies, mosquitoes, tabanids, midges, simuliids, louse flies, mallophaga, sucking lice, etc. The breeding sites of those ectoparasites were described as well as their potential activity as vector of agents of diseases. Considering the places for overwintering, proposals were made when insecticidal products such as Butox® pour-on should be used in order to obtain good rearing results.