Parasitology Research

, Volume 107, Issue 2, pp 425–431 | Cite as

Life cycle and attacks of ectoparasites on ruminants during the year in Central Europe: recommendations for treatment with insecticides (e.g., Butox®)

  • Heinz MehlhornEmail author
  • Khaled A. S. Al-Rasheid
  • Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar
  • Sven Klimpel
  • Herbert Pohle
Original Paper


The occurrence of ectoparasites on ruminants throughout the yearly seasons was compiled from the literature and from our own experiments that were based on ultraviolet trap catches during the years 2007–2009. The data were listed in tables, which also contained details on the life cycles of flies, mosquitoes, tabanids, midges, simuliids, louse flies, mallophaga, sucking lice, etc. The breeding sites of those ectoparasites were described as well as their potential activity as vector of agents of diseases. Considering the places for overwintering, proposals were made when insecticidal products such as Butox® pour-on should be used in order to obtain good rearing results.


Cypermethrin Deltamethrin Babesia Fenvalerate Bluetongue Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Center of Excellence of the College of Science, King Saud University at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heinz Mehlhorn
    • 1
    Email author
  • Khaled A. S. Al-Rasheid
    • 2
  • Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar
    • 3
  • Sven Klimpel
    • 4
  • Herbert Pohle
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyHeinrich Heine UniversityDüsseldorfGermany
  2. 2.Department of Zoology, Center of Excellence, College of ScienceKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Department of ZoologyCairo UniversityGizaEgypt
  4. 4.Biodiversity and Climate Research Center (BIK-F)Johann Wolfgang Goethe UniversityFrankfurt/MainGermany
  5. 5.Intervet-Schering-PloughBoxmeerthe Netherlands

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