Parasitology Research

, Volume 107, Issue 4, pp 787–794 | Cite as

Gastrointestinal helminthiasis: prevalence and associated determinants in domestic ruminants of district Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan

  • Muhammad Nisar Khan
  • Muhammad Sohail Sajid
  • Muhammad Kasib Khan
  • Zafar Iqbal
  • Altaf Hussain
Original Paper

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence and associated determinants (e.g., sex, age, on-farm management and husbandry) of gastrointestinal (GI) helminths in the domestic animals of district Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan. For this purpose, 1,140 cattle, 1,140 buffaloes, 660 goats, 840 sheep, and 156 camels were randomly selected and their fecal samples were screened every other week for a year using a modified floatation technique. The samples positive for strongyle-type eggs had the parasite species identified using coproculture. It was found that the prevalence of GI helminths was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in sheep (44.17%; 371/840) than in other livestock. Sheep were followed in order by goats (40.15%; 265/660), buffaloes (39.82%; 454/1,140), and cattle (33.68%; 384/1,140). The important helminth species identified were Fasciola (F.) gigantica, Fasciola hepatica, Haemonchus contortus, Toxocara vitulorum, Trichostrongylus spp., Oesophagostomum spp., Ostertagia spp., Cooperia spp., Strongyloides spp., Moniezia spp., and Trichuris spp. The prevalence of GI helminths except F. hepatica and F. gigantica was significantly higher in grazing animals, females (P < 0.05) and young (P < 0.05) of all the host species when compared with stall-fed animals, males and adults, respectively. Using ponds and rivers/canals as drinking water were found to have significant influence (P < 0.05) on the prevalence of GI helminths. The results provide a baseline data for planning future research and control strategies against GI helminthes.

References

  1. Andrews SJ (1999) The life cycle of Fasciola hepatica. In: Dalton JP (ed) Fasciolosis. CAB, Wallingford, pp 1–29Google Scholar
  2. Banerjee GC (1991) A text book of animal husbandry, 7th edn. Oxford & IBH, New Delhi, pp 102–104Google Scholar
  3. Banks DJD, Singh R, Barger IA, Pratap B, Le Jambre LF (1990) Development and survival of infected larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis on pastures in a tropical environment. Intl J Parasitol 29:41–47Google Scholar
  4. Bundy DAP, Arambulo PV III, Grey CL (1983) Fascioliasis in Jamaica: epidemiologic and economic aspects of a snail-borne parasitic zoonosis. Bull Pan Am Hlth Org 17:243–258Google Scholar
  5. Clery D, Torgerson P, Mulcahy G (1996) Immune responses of chronically infected adult cattle to Fasciola hepatica. Vet Parasitol 62:71–82CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Colditz IG, Watson DL, Gray GD, Eady SJ (1996) Some relationships between age, immune responsiveness and resistance to parasites in ruminants. Intl J Parasitol 26:869–877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Durrani MZ, Hayat CS (1964) Gastrointestinal parasitism in sheep and goat in Lyallpur (Faisalabad) district. Proc 17 Pakistan Sci ConfGoogle Scholar
  8. Durrani MS, Chaudhry NI, Anwar AH (1981) The incidence of gastrointestinal parasitism in sheep and goats of Jhelum Valley (Azad Kashmir). Pakistan Vet J 1:164–165Google Scholar
  9. Fikru R, Teshale S, Reta D, Yosef K (2006) Epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites of ruminants in Western Oromia, Ethiopia. Intl J Appl Res Vet Med 4(1):51–57Google Scholar
  10. Gamble HR, Zajac AM (1992) Resistance of St. Croix lambs to haemonchus contortus in experimentally and naturally acquired infections. Vet Parasitol 41:211–225CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Ghirmire NP, Karki NPS (1996) Prevalence of fascioliasis and efficacy of various anthelmintics in buffaloes of Rural Kathamandu. Vetcon N U A, p 43Google Scholar
  12. Githiori JB, Hogland J, Waller PJ, Baker RL (2004) Evaluation of anthelmintic properties of some plants used as livestock dewormers against Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep. Parasitol 129:245–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gulland FMD, Fox M (1992) Epidemiology of nematode infections of soay sheep (Ovis aries L.) on St Kilda. Parasitol 105:481–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gupta GC, Joshi BP, Rai P (1976) Some aspects of biochemical studies in calf diseases ascaridiasis and scour. Indian Vet J 53:436–441Google Scholar
  15. Iqbal Z, Akhtar M, Khan MN, Riaz M (1993) Prevalence and economic significance of haemonchosis in sheep and goats slaughtered at Faisalabad abattoir. Pakistan J Agric Sci 30:51–53Google Scholar
  16. Iqbal Z, Sajid MS, Jabbar A, Abbas RZ, Khan MN (2006) Techniques in parasitology. Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, Islamabad, pp 35–40Google Scholar
  17. Keyyu JD, Kassuku AA, Msalilwa LP, Monrad J, Kyvsgaard NC (2006) Cross-sectional prevalence of helminth infections in cattle on traditional, small-scale and large-scale dairy faros in Iringa district, Tanzania. Vet Res Commun 30:45–55CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Khan MN (1985) A survey of gastrointestinal helminthiasis and study of the taxonomy of the species of genus Ostertagia in sheep and goats. M. Sc. Thesis, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, PakistanGoogle Scholar
  19. Khan MN, Hyat CS, Chaudhry AH, Iqbal A, Hayat B (1989) Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth in sheep & goat at Faisalabad abattoir. Pakistan Vet J 9:159–161Google Scholar
  20. Khan MK, Sajid MS, Khan MN, Iqbal Z, Iqbal MU (2009) Bovine fasciolosis: prevalence, effects of treatment on productivity and cost benefit analysis in five districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Res Vet Sci 87:70–75CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Knox DP (2000) Development of vaccines against gastrointestinal nematodes. Parasitol 120:S43–S61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kochapakdee S, Pralomkarn WS, Choldumrongku SS (1995) Change in live weight gain, blood constituents and worm egg counts in Thai native and crossbred goats raised in village environments in southern Thailand. Asian Aust J Anim Sci 78:241–247Google Scholar
  23. Komoin OC, Zinsstag J, Pandey VS, Fofana F, Depo AN (1999) Epidemiology of parasites of sheep in the southern forest zone of Cote d’Ivoire. Revue d’Elevage et de Medecine Veterinaire des Pays Tropicaux 52:39–46Google Scholar
  24. Lima WS (1998) Seasonal infection pattern of gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in Minas Gerais State-Brazil. Vet Parasitol 74:203–214CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Lima JD, Lima WS, Guimarães AM, Mallaco AM (1990) Epidemiology of bovine nematode parasites in southeastern Brazil. In: Guerrero J, Leaning WHD (Eds) Epidemiology of bovine nematode parasites in Americas. Proc MSD AGVET symposium, XVI world Buiatrics congress, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil pp, 49–63Google Scholar
  26. MAFF (1986) Manual of parasitological laboratory techniques. Her Majestey’s stationary office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  27. Magona JW, Musisi G (2002) Influence of age, grazing system, season and agroclimatic zone on the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal strongylosis in Ugandan goats. Sm Rum Res 44:187–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Maqbool A, Hayat CS, Akhtar T, Hashmi HA (2002) Epidemiology of fasciolosis under different managemental conditions. Veterinarski Arhiv 72:221–228Google Scholar
  29. Maqsood M, Iqbal Z, Chaudhry AH (1996) Prevalence and intensity of haemonchosis with reference to breed, sex and age of sheep and goats. Pakistan Vet J 16:41–43Google Scholar
  30. Marwat MY, Siddiqui MN, Riaz S, Akhter J, Ahmed S, Khan Z (1988) Incidence, taxonomy and seasonal variation of gastrointestinal parsites of economic importance in sheep and goats of NWFP. Final Report Project PGPa (411). Grant No Pk Ars 253 Division of Parasitology, VRI, Peshawar pp, 1–31Google Scholar
  31. Miller JE, Bahirathan M, Lemarie SL, Hembry FG, Kearney MT, Barras SR (1998) Epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematode parasitism in suffolk and gulf COAST native sheep with special emphasis on relative susceptibility to Haemonchus contortus infection. Vet Parasitol 74:55–74CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Mirza MA, Razzak A (1998) Internal parasitism in sheep and goats under extensive grazing system. Pakistan Vet J 18:53–54Google Scholar
  33. Mohiuddin A, Khan MM, Mugha FA, Sheikh MA (1984) Taxonomy, incidence and seasonal variation of helminth parasite of sheep and goat of Sind. Pakistan J Zool 16:25–30Google Scholar
  34. Ndamukong KJN, Ngone MM (1996) Development and survival of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus spp. on pasture in Cameroon. Trop Anim Hlth Prod 28:193–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ng’ang’a CJ, Maingi N, Kanyari PWN, Munyua WK (2004) Development, survival and availability of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep on pastures in a semi-arid area of Kajiado district of Kenya. Vet Res Commun 28:491–501CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Nginyi JM, Duncan JL, Mellor DJ, Stear MJ, Wanyangu SW, Bain RK, Gatongi PM (2001) Epidemiology of parasitic gastrointestinal nematode infections of ruminants on smallholder farms in central Kenya. Res Vet Sci 70:33–39CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Onyali IO, Onwuliri COE, Ajayi JA (1990) Development and survival of Haemonchus contortus larvae on pasture at Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria. Vet Res Commun 14:211–216CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Pal RA, Qayyum M (1992) Breed, age and sex-wise distribution of gastro-intestinal helminths of sheep and goats in and around Rawalpindi region. Pakistan Vet J 12:60–63Google Scholar
  39. Perry BD, Randolph TF (1999) Improving the assessment of the economic impact of parasitic diseases and of their control in production animals. Vet Parasitol 84:145–168CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Pfukenyi D, Monrad J, Mukaratirwa S (2005) Epidemiology and control of trematode infections in cattle in Zimbabwe: a review. JS Afr Vet Assoc 76:9–17Google Scholar
  41. Population Census Organization (2008) District Census Reports. Statistics division, Ministry of Economic Affairs & Statistics, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, 612, PakistanGoogle Scholar
  42. Qayyum M (1996) Some epidemiological aspects of gastrointestinal strongyles (Nematodes:Strongyloidea) of sheep in the sub tropical zone of Pakistan. Ph. D. Thesis, Quaid-i- Azam University, Islamabad, PakistanGoogle Scholar
  43. Rajapakse RPVJ, Lloyd S, Fernando ST (1994) The effect of serum and colostrum immunoglobulins from buffaloes infected with Toxocara vitulorum on T. vitulorum larvae in vitro and in vivo in mice. Parasitol Res 80:426–430CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Raza MA, Iqbal Z, Jabbar A, Yaseen M (2007) Point prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthiasis in ruminants in southern Punjab. Pakistan J Helminthol 81:323–328Google Scholar
  45. Roberts JA (1990) The egg production of Toxocara vitulorum in Asian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Intl J Parasitol 37:113–120Google Scholar
  46. Roberts JA, Widjayanti S, Estuningsih E (1996) Acquired resistance of merino sheep against Fasciola gigantica. Parasitol Res 82:743–746CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Sajid MS, Anwar AH, Iqbal Z, Khan MN, Qudoos A (1999) Some epidemiological aspects of gastro-intestinal nematodes of sheep. Intl J Agric Biol 1:306–308Google Scholar
  48. Sarwar MM (1963) Worm parasite control in sheep and goat on West Pakistan. West Pakistan J Agric Res 1:21Google Scholar
  49. SAS (1998) SAS/STAT Users Guides version 6.12. SAS Inst. Inc, Cary, NCGoogle Scholar
  50. Shah M, Hussain SA, Siddiqui ID (1980) Incidence of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of sheep slaughtered in municipal corporation abattoir, Lahore. J Anim Hlth Prod 1:72–75Google Scholar
  51. Shrestha EK, Thakur RP, Dhakal IP, Mahato SN (1992) Prevalence and treatment of fascioliasis in cattle and buffaloes in Dhankuta district. Vet Review 7:47–49Google Scholar
  52. Siddiqi MN, Ashraf M (1980) Helminthiasis in goat slaughtered in the abattoirs of Peshwar, NWFP. Pakistan J Agric Res 1:64–75Google Scholar
  53. Soulsby EJL (1982) Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals, 7th edn. Tindall, London, 809Google Scholar
  54. Spithill TW, Smooker PM, Copeman DB (1999) Fasciola gigantica: epidemiology, control, immunology and molecular biology. In: Dalton JP (ed) Fasciolosis. CAB, Wallingford, pp 465–525Google Scholar
  55. Starke WA, Machado RZ, Honer MR, Zocoller MC (1983) Natural course of gastrointestinal helminthic infections in buffaloes in Andradina County (SP), Brazil. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterináriae Zootecnia 40:758–762Google Scholar
  56. Sykes AR (1994) Parasitism and production in farm ruminants. Anim Prod 59:155–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Taylor CA (1985) Multispecies Grazing Research Overview (Texas). In: Proceedings of a conference on multispecies grazing. June 25–28, 1985, Winrock International, Morrilton, AR pp, 65–83Google Scholar
  58. Tembely S (1998) Development and survival of infective larvae of nematode parasites of sheep on pasture in a cool tropical environment. Vet Parasitol 79:81–87CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Thrusfield M (2007) Veterinary epidemiology. Blackwell, USAGoogle Scholar
  60. Urquhart GM, Armour J, Duncan JL, Dunn AM, Jennings FW (1987) Veterinary parasitology, 1st edn. Longman Group UKGoogle Scholar
  61. Valcárcel F, García Romero C (1999) Prevalence and seasonal pattern of caprine trichostrongyles in a dry area of central Spain. J Vet Med B 6:673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Vercruysse J, Claerebout E (2001) Treatment vs. non-treatment of helminth infections in cattle: defining the thresholds. Vet Parasitol 98:195–214CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Waruiru RM, Munyua WK, Thamsborg SM, Nansen P, Bøgh HO, Gathuma JM (1998) Development and survival of infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle on pasture in central Kenya. Vet Res Commun 22:315–323CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Zajac AM, Conboy GA (2006) Veterinary clinical parasitology, 7th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Iowa, USAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Nisar Khan
    • 1
  • Muhammad Sohail Sajid
    • 1
  • Muhammad Kasib Khan
    • 1
  • Zafar Iqbal
    • 1
  • Altaf Hussain
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary ScienceUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Livestock and Dairy Development DepartmentPunjabPakistan

Personalised recommendations