Evaluation of botanical extracts against Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann and Hippobosca maculata Leach
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In the current study, in vitro evaluation of crude hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Anisomeles malabarica (L.) R. Br., Gloriosa superba L., Psidium guajava L., Ricinus communis L., and Solanum trilobatum L. exhibited acaricidal and insecticidal activities against the adult of Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann (Acarina: Ixodidae) and hematophagous fly Hippobosca maculata Leach (Diptera: Hippoboscidae). All plant extracts showed moderate toxic effect on parasites after 24 h of exposure; the complete inhibition (100%) at the maximum concentration tested (3,000 ppm) was obtained in acetone, methanol, hexane, and chloroform extracts of A. malabarica; methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts of G. superba; acetone extract of P. guajava; methanol extract of R. communis; and leaf hexane extract of S. trilobatum; and the lowest inhibition (38%) was recorded for the seed hexane extract of S. trilobatum. The highest parasite dead was found in leaf acetone and methanol extracts of A. malabarica, seed methanol of G. superba, leaf methanol of R. communis against H. bispinosa (LC50 = 466.15, 719.78, 476.06, and 243.87 ppm; LC90 = 1,837.96, 2,014.47, 1,904.36, and 2,692.15 ppm), leaf hexane and chloroform extracts of A. malabarica, seed chloroform and ethyl acetate of G. superba, leaf acetone of P. guajava, leaf methanol of R. communis, and leaf hexane extract of S. trilobatum against H. maculata (LC50 = 495.61, 414.81, 360.02, 479.37, 646.30, 506.13, and 432.77 ppm; LC90 = 1,914.84, 1,956.59, 1,598.54, 1,636.41, 2,192.73, 1,982.66, and 1,872.33 ppm), respectively. These results suggest that the leaf methanol of R. communis, chloroform extracts of A. malabarica, and chloroform extract of G. superba have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the H. bispinosa and H. maculata. Therefore, this study provides first report on the parasitic activities of plant extracts from Southern India.