Parasitology Research

, Volume 106, Issue 5, pp 1217–1223 | Cite as

Laboratory evaluation of traditionally used plant-based insect repellent against the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae)

  • Kaliyaperumal KarunamoorthiEmail author
  • Kandan Ilango
  • Kadarkarai Murugan
Original Paper


A laboratory study was carried out to evaluate the repellent efficacy of a methanol-leaf extract of Ethiopian traditionally used insect repellent plant viz., Lomi sar [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. (Poaceae)] against Anopheles arabiensis at four different concentrations viz., 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mg/cm2. The percentage protection in relation to the dose method was performed. C. citratus extract has shown various degrees of repellency impact against A. arabiensis. It provided the maximum total percentage protection of 78.83% at 2.5 mg/cm2 and followed 68.06% at 2.0 mg/cm2 for 12 h. All four tested concentrations of C. citratus extract offered significant protection and Student's t test results shows statistically significant (p value = 0.001) [1.0 mg/cm2 (t = 22.89; df = 4); 1.5 mg/cm2 (t = 24.03; df = 4); 2.0 mg/cm2 (t = 36.92; df = 4); 2.5 mg/cm2 (t = 22.31; df = 4)] difference between treated and control groups. The result suggests that it could serve as a potent insect repellent against vectors of disease. Globally, C. citratus is renowned for its therapeutic values. Above and beyond, due to its user- as well as environmental-friendly nature, it should be promoted among the marginalized populations in order to reduce man-vector contact. In addition, this appropriate strategy affords the opportunity to minimize chemical repellent usage and the risks associated with adverse side effects. At the end of the day, traditionally used plant-based insect repellents could be viable safer alternative sources for chemical insect repellents.


Malaria Leaf Extract Repellent Activity Anopheles Arabiensis Insect Repellent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We are greatly indebted to Professor Dr. K. Sasikala, M.Sc., Ph.D., M.A.F.R.C, the Head, Department of Zoology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046, Tamil Nadu, India, for her constant encouragement throughout my studies. The authors sincerely thank Ms. Mihiret, Mr. Admasu, and Mr. Abebe for their valuable contributions for the identification and collection of Ethiopian traditional medicinal plants. Our last but not least heartfelt thanks go to our colleagues from the School of Environmental Health Science, Faculty of Public Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia, for their kind support and cooperation.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kaliyaperumal Karunamoorthi
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Kandan Ilango
    • 3
  • Kadarkarai Murugan
    • 4
  1. 1.Unit of Vector Biology & Control, Department of Environmental Health Science, College of Public Health & Medical SciencesJimma UniversityJimmaEthiopia
  2. 2.Research and Development CenterBharathiar UniversityCoimbatoreIndia
  3. 3.Zoological Survey of IndiaChennaiIndia
  4. 4.Department of ZoologyBharathiar UniversityCoimbatoreIndia

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