Advertisement

Parasitology Research

, Volume 106, Issue 5, pp 1135–1139 | Cite as

Effects of ethanol extract of Artemisia annua L. against monogenean parasites of Heterobranchus longifilis

  • Albert P. Ekanem
  • Ebiamadon Andi Brisibe
Original Paper

Abstract

Ethanol extract of Artemisia annua was effective in the dislodgement and mortality of monogenean parasites of juvenile Heterobranchus longifilis at concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 mg/l. Five hundred 1-week-old juvenile fish were stocked in hapa in earthen pond for 7 days to accumulate parasites. The approximate number of parasites per fish was confirmed by counting the number of parasites attached to body surfaces and the gills with a stereo-microscope before being exposed to the extract under in vivo conditions. The bioactivity of the extract was conducted in plastic Petri dishes with three replications and controls. The results obtained from A. annua extract were matched against those produced by pure artemisinin and artesunate powder, respectively, under similar experimental conditions. There was a faster effect of pure artemisinin crystals on the parasites as compared to A. annua extract and artesunate. Coagulation of parasite cells was observed with artemisinin treatment, whereas parasites were merely dislodged from their attachment organs and killed some hours later in the same concentration of A. annua. There were positive correlations between the number of parasites dislodged/killed and the concentration of A. annua extract, artemisinin, and artesunate powder, respectively, as well as the duration of exposure of affected fish to the substances. This led to the conclusion that A. annua contains substances that are effective against helminthes parasites of H. longifilis.

Keywords

Artemisinin Praziquantel Artesunate Dichlorvos Artemether 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Allen PC (1997) Effects of components of Artemisia annua on coccidia infections in chickens. Poult Sci 76(8):1156–1163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bailey LH, Bailey EZ (1976) Hortus third. MacMillan Publ. Co., NewYorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Bone K, Morgan M (1992) Clinical applications of ayurvedic and Chinese herbs: monographs for the Western herbal practitioner. Phytotherapy Press, Warwick, pp 7–12Google Scholar
  4. Brisibe EA, Owai PU, Umoren UE, Brisibe F (2008) Dietary inclusion of Artemisia annua leaves for management of coccidiosis and growth enhancement in chickens. Afri J Biotech 7:4083–4092Google Scholar
  5. Chen YT, Ma L, Mei Q, Tang Y, Liao XG (1994) An experimental trial of artemether in treatment of Pneumocystis carinii in immunosuppressed rats. Chin Med J 107:673–677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Chisholm LA, Whittington ID (2002) Efficacy of praziquantel bath treatments for monogenean infections of Rhinobatos typus. J Aquat Anim Health 14:230–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clark TG, Dickerson HW (1997) Antibody-mediated effects on parasite behavior: evidence of a novel mechanism of immunity against a parasitic protist. Parasitol Today 13:477–480CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Faruk MAR, Sarker MMR, Alam MJ, Kabir MB (2004) Economic loss from fish diseases on rural fresh water aquaculture of Bangladesh. Pak J Biol Sci 7(12):2086–2091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ferreira JFS, Ritchey KD, Cassida KA, Turner KE (2006) The cultivation of Artemisia annua in West Virginia and its potential in animal health. HortScience 41:965Google Scholar
  10. Gratzek JB, Blasiola G (1992) Checklists, quarantine procedures, and calculations of particular use in fish health management. In: Gratzek JB, Mathews JR (eds) Aquariology: the science of fish health management. Tetra press, Morris plainsGoogle Scholar
  11. Hart SP, Ferreira JFS, Wang Z (2007) Efficacy of wormwoods (Artemisia spp.) as an anthelmintic in goats. J An Sci 86:92Google Scholar
  12. Hien TT, White NJ (1993) Qinghaosu. Lancet 341:603–608CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Hoffman GL (1983) Asian tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, prevention and control, Stutgart, Arkanasas. Unites States Fish and Wildlife Service LeafletGoogle Scholar
  14. Committee on Mutagenicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment (1999) Statement for COT: malachite green and leucomalachite green. Department of Health, London. http://archive.food.gov.uk/dept_health/pdf/mala.pdf. Cited 22 August 2003
  15. Jones-Brando L, D'Angelo J, Posner GH, Yolken R (2006) In vitro inhibition of Toxoplasma gondii by four new derivatives of artemisinin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:4206–4208CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Lewbart GL, Gratzek JB (1990) The use of praziquantel in the elimination of intestinal cestodes from the red snakehead. 21st Annual Meeting International Association of Aquatic Medicine, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  17. Li W, Mo W, Shen D, Sun L, Wang J, Lu S, Gitschier JM, Zhou B (2005) Yeast model uncovers dual roles of mitochondria in the action of artemisinin. PLoS Genetics 1:0329–0334Google Scholar
  18. Ma Y, Lu D, Lu X, Liao L, Hu X (2004) Activity of dihydroartemisinin against Leishmania donovani both in vitro and vivo. Chin Med J 117:1271–1273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Mishina YV, Krishna S, Haynes RK, Meade JC (2007) Artemisinins inhibit Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in in vitro growth. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:1852–1854CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Mortensen S, Korsnes K, Bergh Ø (2006) Eyes wide shut. A critical view of aquaculture health management and risk factors in the ‘real world’. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 26(1):1–5Google Scholar
  21. Moser M, Sakanari J, Heckmann R (1986) The effects of praziquantel on various larval and adult parasites from freshwater and marine snails and fish. J Parasitol 72:175–176CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Obiekezie AI, Taege M (1991) Mortalities in hatchery reared fry of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) caused by Gyrodactylus groschafti Ergens (1973). Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 11(2):82–85Google Scholar
  23. Quinghaosu Antimalarial Coordinating Group (1979) Antimalarial studies on quinghaosu. Chin Med J 92:811–816Google Scholar
  24. Ridley RG, Hudson N (1998) Oxidative stress and antimalarial drugs. Curr Biol 8:R346–R349CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Scott P (1993) Therapy in aquaculture. In: Brown L (ed) Aquaculture for veterinarians. Pergamon press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Simon JE, Chadwick AF, Craker LE (1984) Herbs: an indexed bibliography, 1971-1980. The scientific literature on selected herbs, and aromatic and medicinal plants of the temperate zone. Archon Books, HamdenGoogle Scholar
  27. Szekely C, Molnar K (1987) Mebendazole is an efficacious drug against pseudogyrodactylosis in the European eel (Anquilla anquilla). J Appl Ichthyol 3:183–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Turner KE, Ferreira JFS (2005) Potential use of Artemisia annua in meat goat production systems. In Proceedings of American Forage and Grassland Council Symposium, Vol. 14, pp 221–225Google Scholar
  29. Utzinger T, Shuhua X, Keiser J, Minggan C, Jiang Z, Tanner M (2001) Current progress in the development and use of artemether for chemoprophylaxis of major human schistosome parasites. Curr Med Chem 8:1841–1859PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. World Health Organization (1981) Report of the fourth meeting of the scientific working group on the chemotherapy of malaria. Beijing, People's Republic of China, 6–10 October 1981Google Scholar
  31. Yeung H-C (1985) Handbook of Chinese herbs and formulas. Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Institute of OceanographyUniversity of CalabarCalabarNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Genetics & BiotechnologyUniversity of CalabarCalabarNigeria

Personalised recommendations