Parasitology Research

, Volume 106, Issue 5, pp 1135–1139 | Cite as

Effects of ethanol extract of Artemisia annua L. against monogenean parasites of Heterobranchus longifilis

  • Albert P. Ekanem
  • Ebiamadon Andi Brisibe
Original Paper


Ethanol extract of Artemisia annua was effective in the dislodgement and mortality of monogenean parasites of juvenile Heterobranchus longifilis at concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 mg/l. Five hundred 1-week-old juvenile fish were stocked in hapa in earthen pond for 7 days to accumulate parasites. The approximate number of parasites per fish was confirmed by counting the number of parasites attached to body surfaces and the gills with a stereo-microscope before being exposed to the extract under in vivo conditions. The bioactivity of the extract was conducted in plastic Petri dishes with three replications and controls. The results obtained from A. annua extract were matched against those produced by pure artemisinin and artesunate powder, respectively, under similar experimental conditions. There was a faster effect of pure artemisinin crystals on the parasites as compared to A. annua extract and artesunate. Coagulation of parasite cells was observed with artemisinin treatment, whereas parasites were merely dislodged from their attachment organs and killed some hours later in the same concentration of A. annua. There were positive correlations between the number of parasites dislodged/killed and the concentration of A. annua extract, artemisinin, and artesunate powder, respectively, as well as the duration of exposure of affected fish to the substances. This led to the conclusion that A. annua contains substances that are effective against helminthes parasites of H. longifilis.


Artemisinin Praziquantel Artesunate Dichlorvos Artemether 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Institute of OceanographyUniversity of CalabarCalabarNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Genetics & BiotechnologyUniversity of CalabarCalabarNigeria

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