Parasitology Research

, Volume 106, Issue 4, pp 941–945 | Cite as

Solubilized antigen of Blastocystis hominis facilitates the growth of human colorectal cancer cells, HCT116

  • Samudi Chandramathi
  • Kumar Suresh
  • Umah Rani Kuppusamy
Original Paper

Abstract

Blastocystis hominis is one of the most common intestinal protozoan parasites in humans, and reports have shown that blastocystosis is coupled with intestinal disorders. In the past, researchers have developed an in vitro model using B. hominis culture filtrates to investigate its ability in triggering inflammatory cytokine responses and transcription factors in human colonic epithelial cells. Studies have also correlated the inflammation by parasitic infection with cancer. The present study provides evidence of the parasite facilitating cancer cell growth through observing the cytopathic effect, cellular immunomodulation, and apoptotic responses of B. hominis, especially in malignancy. Here we investigated the effect of solubilized antigen from B. hominis on cell viability, using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and human colorectal carcinoma cells (HCT116). The gene expressions of cytokines namely interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma, nuclear factor kappa light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (a gene transcription factor), and proapoptotic genes namely protein 53 and cathepsin B were also studied. Results exhibited favor the fact that antigen from B. hominis, at a certain concentration, could facilitate the growth of HCT116 while having the ability to downregulate immune cell responses (PBMCs). Therefore, there is a vital need to screen colorectal cancer patients for B. hominis infection as it possesses the ability to enhance the tumor growth.

References

  1. Barahona Rondon RL, Maguina Vargas C, Naquira Velarde C, Terashima IA, Tello R (2003) Human blastocystosis: prospective study symptomatology and associated epidemiological factors. Rev Gastroenterol Peru 23:29–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Becker C, Fantini MC, Wirtz S, Nikolaev A, Lehr HA et al (2005) IL-6 signaling promotes tumor growth in colorectal cancer. Cell Cycle 4:217–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Boyum A (1974) Separation of blood leucocytes, granulocytes and lymphocytes. Tissue Antigens 4:269–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Burczynski ME, Twine NC, Dukart G, Marshall B, Hidalgo M et al (2005) Transcriptional profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells prognostic of clinical outcomes in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 11:1181–1189. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(05)00564-1 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Chandramathi S, Suresh K, Shuba S, Mahmood A, Kuppusamy UR (2009) High levels of oxidative stress in rats infected with Blastocystis hominis. Parasitology 1–7Google Scholar
  6. El-Shazly AM, Abdel-Magied AA, El-Beshbishi SN, El-Nahas HA, Fouad MA et al (2005) Blastocystis hominis among symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals in Talkha Center, Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 35:653–666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Fitzpatrick FA (2001) Inflammation, carcinogenesis and cancer. Int Immunopharmacol 1:1651–1667. doi:10.1016/S1567-5769(01)00102-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Govind SK, Khairul AA, Smith HV (2002) Multiple reproductive processes in Blastocystis. Trends Parasitol 18:528CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Jo H, Zhang R, Zhang H, McKinsey TA, Shao J et al (2000) NF-kappa B is required for H-ras oncogene induced abnormal cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Oncogene 19:841–849. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1203392 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Landi S, Moreno V, Gioia-Patricola L, Guino E, Navarro M et al (2003) Association of common polymorphisms in inflammatory genes interleukin (IL)6, IL8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, NFKB1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma with colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 63:3560–3566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Lanuza MD, Carbajal JA, Villar J, Borras R (1997) Description of an improved method for Blastocystis hominis culture and axenization. Parasitol Res 83:60–63CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Livak KJ, Schmittgen TD (2001) Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-delta delta C(T)) method. Methods 25:402–408. doi:10.1006/meth.2001.1262 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Long HY, Handschack A, Konig W, Ambrosch A (2001) Blastocystis hominis modulates immune responses and cytokine release in colonic epithelial cells. Parasitol Res 87:1029–1030. doi:10.1007/s004360100494 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Maas K, Chan S, Parker J, Slater A, Moore J et al (2002) Cutting edge: molecular portrait of human autoimmune disease. J Immunol 169:5–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Mosmann T (1983) Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol Methods 65:55–63. doi:10.1016/0022-1759(83)90303-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Ohshima H, Bartsch H (1994) Chronic infections and inflammatory processes as cancer risk factors: possible role of nitric oxide in carcinogenesis. Mutat Res 305:253–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Pao CC, Lin CY, Yao DS, Tseng CJ (1995) Differential expression of cytokine genes in cervical cancer tissues. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 214:1146–1151. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1995.2405 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Puthia MK, Lu J, Tan KS (2008) Blastocystis ratti contains cysteine proteases that mediate interleukin-8 response from human intestinal epithelial cells in an NF-kappa B-dependent manner. Eukaryot Cell 7:435–443. doi:10.1128/EC.00371-07 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Rhodes JM, Campbell BJ (2002) Inflammation and colorectal cancer: IBD-associated and sporadic cancer compared. Trends Mol Med 8:10–16. doi:10.1016/S1471-4914(01)02194-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Romagnani S (1996) Th1 and Th2 in human diseases. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 80:225–235. doi:10.1006/clin.1996.0118 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Rosen GM, Pou S, Ramos CL, Cohen MS, Britigan BE (1995) Free radicals and phagocytic cells. FASEB J 9:200–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Spaeth EL, Dembinski JL, Sasser AK, Watson K, Klopp A et al (2009) Mesenchymal stem cell transition to tumor-associated fibroblasts contributes to fibrovascular network expansion and tumor progression. PLoS ONE 4:e4992. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004992 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Suresh K, Smith H (2004) Comparison of methods for detecting Blastocystis hominis. Eur J Clin Microbio Infect Dis 23:509–511. doi:10.1007/s10096-004-1123-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tan TC, Suresh KG, Smith HV (2008) Phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of Blastocystis hominis isolates implicates subtype 3 as a subtype with pathogenic potential. Parasitol Res 104(1):85–93CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Walderich B, Bernauer S, Renner M, Knobloch J, Burchard GD (1998) Cytopathic effects of Blastocystis hominis on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and adeno carcinoma HT29 cell cultures. Trop Med Int Health 3:385–390CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Wang X, Wang Q, Ives KL, Evers BM (2006) Curcumin inhibits neurotensin-mediated interleukin-8 production and migration of HCT116 human colon cancer cells. Clin Cancer Res 12:5346–5355. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-0968 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Zaman V, Khan KZ (1994) A concentration technique for obtaining viable cysts of Blastocystis hominis from faeces. J Pak Med Assoc 44:220–221PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samudi Chandramathi
    • 1
  • Kumar Suresh
    • 1
  • Umah Rani Kuppusamy
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Parasitology, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

Personalised recommendations