Parasitology Research

, Volume 106, Issue 4, pp 957–965

Insecticidal, acaricidal and repellent effects of DEET- and IR3535-impregnated bed nets using a novel long-lasting polymer-coating technique

  • Michael K. Faulde
  • Gunther Albiez
  • Oliver Nehring
Original Paper

Abstract

A novel long-lasting repellent-treated net (LLRTN) has been designed by binding the skin repellents N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), or IR3535, onto the fibres of bed net fabric using a new polymer-coating technique. The repellent toxicological effectiveness and residual activity of a factory-based repellent-impregnated fabric has been evaluated by laboratory testing against adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks. By using this repellent-embedding impregnation technique, concentrations exceeding 10 g/m2 could be achieved with one single polymer layer. Both DEET- and IR3535-impregnated fabrics revealed a dose-dependent insecticidal as well as acaricidal activity. One hundred percent knockdown times of DEET-treated bed nets ranged from 187.5 ± 31.8 to 27.5 ± 3.5 min against A. aegypti, and between 214 ± 47 and 22.6 ± 5 min against nymphal I. ricinus, linked to a DEET concentration of 1.08 and 10.58 g/m2, respectively. With IR3535, A. aegypti produced dose-dependent 100% knockdown times varying from 87.5 ± 10.6 to 57.5 ± 3.5 min and between 131.4 ± 6.5 and 33.8 ± 5 min against nymphal I. ricinus, respectively, linked to concentrations between 1.59 and 10.02 g/m2. One hundred percent repellency measured by complete landing and biting protection of impregnated fabric by using the arm-in-cage test could be achieved at DEET concentrations exceeding 3.7 to 3.9 g/m2, and for IR3535 concentrations over 10 g/m2. One hundred percent landing and biting protection could be preserved with DEET-treated fabrics for 29 weeks at an initial concentration of 4.66 g/m2, 54 weeks at 8.8 g/m2, 58 weeks at 9.96 g/m2 and 61 weeks at 10.48 g/m2 for DEET, and 23 weeks for IR3535-treated fabric at a concentration of 10.02 g/m2. Unlike repellent-treated fabric, a brand of a commercially available long-lasting insecticide-treated net tested containing 500 mg permethrin/m2 did not protect from mosquito bites. First results on bioactivity and long-lasting efficacy show that the new LLRTN technique is highly promising as a potential candidate for future malaria control strategies, especially in areas where pyrethroid resistance occurs.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael K. Faulde
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gunther Albiez
    • 3
  • Oliver Nehring
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Medical Entomology/ZoologyCentral Institute of the Bundeswehr Armed Forces Medical ServiceKoblenzGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Immunology, Medical Microbiology and ParasitologyUniversity Clinic BonnBonnGermany
  3. 3.Department of PharmacyCentral Institute of the Bundeswehr Armed Forces Medical ServiceKoblenzGermany

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