Monitoring of failure of chloroquine treatment for Plasmodium vivax using polymerase chain reaction in Sanliurfa province, Turkey
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Malaria is a complex disease that varies widely in epidemiology and clinical manifestation in the southeastern part of Turkey. In many regions of the world, chloroquine (CQ) has been the standard treatment for Plasmodium vivax. However, the resistance of the Plasmodium species to antimalarial drugs has become an increasing problem and a concern worldwide. Our target was to determine the Plasmodium species in the southeast region of Turkey and the therapeutic efficacy of CQ used in the treatment of malaria. Blood samples were collected from 180 patients infected with malaria before and after CQ treatment and were subjected to DNA isolation. The isolated DNA was amplified by a seminested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (SnM-PCR) including primers selected on Plasmodium small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA) genes for identification of the malaria species. The SnM-PCR results showed that only P. vivax exists in this province. It was also determined that there is a therapeutic failure to CQ in 9.5% of patients. These were the second report on identification of P. vivax and the third report on determination of the therapeutic failure in patients who used CQ to cure human malaria in the southeastern region of Turkey. Our results demonstrate that the SnM-PCR is a sensitive, specific, and a rapid tool for the differentiation of malaria species.