Parasitology Research

, Volume 106, Issue 2, pp 299–309 | Cite as

Encephalitozoonosis in rabbits

  • Frank KünzelEmail author
  • Anja Joachim


Encephalitozoon cuniculi is an obligatory intracellular microsporidian parasite that can infect a wide range of mammals, including rodents, rabbits, horses, carnivores and humans, in which the organism is known as an opportunistic pathogen of immunocompromised individuals. Nevertheless, the main host for E. cuniculi is the rabbit and infections usually have a sub-clinical course. However, severe disease is recognised in pet rabbits more frequently within the last years. As the central nervous system, the kidney and the eye are predilection organs for the organism, predominant histopathological alterations comprise granulomatous meningoencephalitis, chronical interstitial nephritis and phacoclastic uveitis. A definitive diagnosis of encephalitozoonosis in vivo is difficult, but it is important for specific treatment and the determination of possible zoonotic risks. This review article covers epidemiology, pathology, pathophysiology, immunology, clinical signs, differential diagnosis, diagnosis and treatment of encephalitozoonosis in rabbits.


Nest Polymerase Chain Reaction Albendazole Bovine Leukaemia Virus Head Tilt Otitis Externa 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Ashton N, Cook C, Clegg F (1976) Encephalitozoonosis (nosematosis) causing bilateral cataract in a rabbit. Br J Ophthal 60:618–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baneux PJR, Pognan F (2003) In utero transmission of Encephalitozoon cuniculi strain type I in rabbits. Lab Anim 37:132–138CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Beauvais B, Sarfati C, Challier S, Derouin F (1994) In vitro model to asses effect of antimicrobial agents on Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Antimicrob Agent Chemother 38(10):2440–2448Google Scholar
  4. Biderre C, Pagès M, Méténier G, Canning EU, Vivarès CP (1995) Evidence for the smallest nuclear genome (2.9 Mb) in the microsporidium Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Mol. Biochem Parasitol 74(2):229–231CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Boot R, Hansen C, Nozari N, Thuis H (2000) Comparison of assays for antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits. Lab Anim 34(3):281–289CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Canning EU, Lom J (1986) The Microsporidia of vertebrates. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. Chalupský J, Vávra J, Bedrník P (1979) Encephalitozoonosis in laboratory animals—a serological survey. Folia Parasitol (Praha) 26:1–8Google Scholar
  8. Chalupsky J, Vavra J, Gaudin J (1990) Mise en evidence serologique de la presence d‘ encephalitozoonose et de toxoplasmose chez le lapin de Gareene (Oryctolagus cuniculus) en France. Bull Soc Franc Parasitol 8:91–95Google Scholar
  9. Cox JC, Gallichio HA (1978) Serological and histological studies on adult rabbits with recent, naturally acquired encephalitozoonosis. Res Vet Sci 24:260–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Cox JC, Pye D (1975) Serodiagnosis of nosematosis by immunofluorescence using cell culture grown organisms. Lab Anim 9:297–304CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cox JC, Ross J (1980) A serological survey of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in the wild rabbit in England and Scotland. Res Vet Sci 28:396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cox JC, Hamilton RC, Attwood HD (1979) An investigation of the route and progression of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in adult rabbits. J Protozool 26:260–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cox JC, Pye D, Edmonds JW, Shepherd R (1980) An investigation of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in the wild rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus in Victoria, Australia. J Hyg (Lond) 84(2):295–300Google Scholar
  14. Csokai J, Gruber A, Künzel F, Tichy A, Joachim A (2009a) Encephalitozoonosis in pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus): pathohistological findings in animals with latent infection versus clinical manifestation. Parasitol Res 104:629–635CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Csokai J, Joachim A, Gruber A, Tichy A, Pakozdy A, Künzel F (2009b) Diagnostic markers for encephalitozoonosis in pet rabbits. Vet Parasitol 163(1–2):18–26CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Deeb BJ, Carpenter JW (2004) Neurologic and musculoskeletal disease. In: Quesenberry KE, Carpenter JW (eds) Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery, 2nd edn. Saunders, St. Louis, pp 203–210Google Scholar
  17. Deeb BJ, Di Giacomo RF (1994) Cerebral larva migrans caused by Baylascaris sp. in pet rabbits. J Am Vet Med Assoc 205:1744–1747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. De Groote M, Visvesvara G, Wilson M, Pieniazek N, Slemenda S, da Silva A, Leitch G, Bryan R, Reves R (1995) Polymerase chain reaction and culture confirmation of disseminated Encephalitozoon cuniculi in a patient with AIDS: Successful therapy with albendazole. J Infect Dis 171:1375–1378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Deplazes P, Mathis A, Baumgartner R, Tanner I, Weber R (1996) Immunologic and molecular characteristics of Encephalitozoon-like microsporidia isolated from humans and rabbits indicate that Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a zoonotic parasite. Clin Infect Dis 22:557–559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Didier PJ, Didier ES, Orenstein JM, Shadduck JA (1991) Fine structure of a new human microsporidian, Encephalitozoon hellem, in culture. J Protozool 38:502–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Didier E, Orenstein JM, Aldras A, Bertucci D, Rogers LB, Janney A (1995a) Comparison of three staining methods for detecting microsporidia in fluids. J Clin Microbiol 33:3138–3145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Didier ES, Vossbrinck CR, Baker MD, Rogers LB, Bertucci DC, Shadduck JA (1995b) Identification and characterization of three Encephalitozoon cuniculi strains. Parasitology 111(Pt 4):411–421CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Dipineto L, Rinaldi L, Santaniello A, Sensale M, Cuomo A, Calabria M, Menna LF, Fioretti A (2008) Serological survey for antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi in pet rabbits in Italy. Zoonoses Publ Health 55:173–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dubey JP, Brown CA, Carpenter JL, Moore JJ (1992) Fatal toxoplasmosis in domestic rabbits in the USA. Vet Parasitol 44:305–309CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Ebrecht D, Müller E (2004) Zoonosen des Kaninchens. Tieraerztl Prax K 32:363–369Google Scholar
  26. Eröksüz Y, Eröksüz H, Özer H, Cevik A, Ünver Ö (1999) A survey of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in rabbit colonies in Elazig, Turkey: pathomorphologic and serologic (carbonimmunoassay test) studies. Isr J Vet Med 54:73–77Google Scholar
  27. Ewringmann A, Göbel T (1999) Untersuchungen zur Klinik und Therapie der Encephalitozoonose beim Heimtierkaninchen. Kleintierpraxis 44:357–372Google Scholar
  28. Feaga WP (1997) Wry neck in rabbits. JAVMA 210(4):480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Fechle LM, Sigler RL (2002) Phacoemulsification for the management of Encephalitozoonon cuniculi-induced phacoclastic uveitis in a rabbit. Vet Ophthalmol 5:211–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Flatt RE, Jackson SJ (1970) Renal nosematosis in young rabbits. Path Vet 7:492–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Franssen FF, Lumeij JT, van Knapen F (1995) Susceptibility of Encephalitozoon cuniculi to several drugs in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 39(6):1265–1268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Franzen C (2004) Microsporidia: how can they invade other cells? Trends Parasitol 20(6):275–279CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Furuoka H, Sato H, Kubo M, Owaki S, Kobayashi Y, Matsui T, Kamiya H (2003) Neuropathological observation of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) affected with raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) larva migrans in Japan. J Vet Med Sci 65(6):695–699CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Giordano C, Weigt A, Vercelli A, Rondena M, Grilli G, Giudice C (2005) Immunohistochemical identification of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in phacoclastic uveitis in four rabbits. Vet Ophthalmol 8:271–275CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Grahn B, Wolfer J, Keller Ch (1991) Diagnostic Ophtalmology. Can Vet J 32:372–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Grest P, Albicker P, Hoelzle L, Wild P, Pospischil A (2002) Herpes simplex encephalitis in a domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). J Comp Pathol 126(4):308–311CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Gruber A, Pakozdy A, Weissenböck H, Csokai J, Künzel F (2009) A retrospective study of neurological disease in 118 rabbits. J Comp Pathol 140(1):31–37CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Halánová M, Cisláková L, Valencákova A, Bálent P, Adam J, Trávnicek M (2003) Serological screening of occurrence of antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi in humans and animals in Eastern Slovakia. Ann Agric Environ Med 10(1):117–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Harcourt-Brown F (2002) Textbook of rabbit medicine. Butterworth-Heinemann, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  40. Harcourt-Brown FM (2004) Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in rabbits. Semin Avian Exot Pet Med 13:86–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Harcourt-Brown FM, Holloway HKR (2003) Encephalitozoon cuniculi in pet rabbits. Vet Rec 152:427–431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Horváth M, Svicky E, Sevcikova Z (1998) Pathomorphological response to Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in cyclophosphamide-treated rabbits. Acta Vet (Brno) 67:37–42Google Scholar
  43. Igarashi M, Oohashi E, Dautu G, Ueno A, Kariya T, Furuya K (2008) High seroprevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in pet rabbits in Japan. J Vet Med Sci 70(12):1301–1304CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Jass A, Matiasek K, Hartmann K, Küchenhoff H, Fischer A (2006) Evaluierung von Liquoruntersuchung und PCR zur Diagnose der Enzephalitozoonose beim Kaninchen. Prakt Tierarzt 87:518–524Google Scholar
  45. Jass A, Matiasek K, Henke J, Küchenhoff H, Hartmann K, Fischer A (2008) Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in healthy rabbits and rabbits with clinically suspected encephalitozoonosis. Vet Rec 162(19):618–622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Jordan CN, Zajac AM, Lindsay DS (2006) Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in rabbits. Compend Contin Educ Vet 28:108–116Google Scholar
  47. Karp BE (1999) Rabies in two privately owned domestic rabbits. J Am Vet Med Assoc 215:1824–1827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Katinka MD, Duprat S, Cornillot E, Méténier G, Thomarat F, Prensier G, Barbe V, Peyretaillade E, Brottier P, Wincker P, Delbac F, El Alaoui H, Peyret P, Saurin W, Gouy M, Weissenbach J, Vivarès CP (2001) Genome sequence and gene compaction of the eukaryote parasite Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Nature 414(6862):450–453CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Katzwinkel-Wladarsch S, Lieb M, Heise W, Löscher T, Rinder H (1996) Direct amplification and species determination of microsporidian DNA from stool specimens. Trop Med Int Health 1:373–378CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Katzwinkel-Wladarsch S, Deplazes P, Weber R, Löscher T, Rinder H (1997) Comparison of polymerase chain reaction with light microscopy for detection of microsporidia in clinical specimens. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 16:7–10CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Keeble EJ, Shaw DJ (2006) Seroprevalence of antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi in domestic rabbits in the United Kingdom. Vet Rec 158:539–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Khan IA, Moretto M (1999) Role of gamma interferon in cellular immune response against murine Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection. Infect Immun 67(4):1887–1893PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Khan IA, Schwartzman JD, Kasper LH, Moretto M (1999) CD8+ CTLs are essential for protective immunity against Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection. J Immunol 162(10):6086–6091PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Khan IA, Moretto M, Weiss LM (2001) Immune response to Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection. Microbes Infect 3(5):401–405CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kock NP, Petersen H, Fenner T, Sobottka I, Schmetz C, Deplazes P, Pieniazek NJ, Albrecht H, Schottelius J (1997) Species-specific identification of microsporidia in stool and intestinal biopsy specimens by the polymerase chain reaction. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 16:369–376CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Koudela B, Vítovec J, Kucerová Z, Ditrich O, Trávnícek J (1993) The severe combined immunodeficient mouse as a model for Encephalitozoon cuniculi microsporidiosis. Folia Parasitol. (Praha) 40(4):279–286Google Scholar
  57. Kunstýř I, Naumann S (1985) Head tilt in rabbits caused by pasteurellosis and encephalitozoonosis. Lab Anim 19:208–213CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Künzel F, Gruber A, Tichy A, Edelhofer R, Nell B, Hassan J, Leschnik M, Thalhammer JG, Joachim A (2008) Clinical symptoms and diagnosis of encephalitozoonosis in pet rabbits. Vet Parasitol 151:115–124CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Leland MM, Hubbard GV, Dubey JP (1992) Clinical toxoplasmosis in domestic rabbits. Lab Anim Sci 42:318–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Lev L (1982) Untersuchungen von experimentellen und spontanen Encephalitozoon cuniculi-Infektionen bei Kaninchen mit 3 serologischen Methoden. Dissertation, Veterinary University of HannoverGoogle Scholar
  61. Levkut M, Lesnik F, Balent P, Levkutová M, Kolodzieyski L, Horváth M (1998) An unusal manifestation of encephalitozoonosis in chinchilla rabbits. Can Vet J 39(9):576–577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lyngset A (1980) A survey of serum antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi in breeding rabbits and their young. Lab Anim Sci 30:558–561PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Mathis A (2000) Microsporidia: emerging advances in understanding the basic biology of these unique organisms. Int J Parasitol 30:795–804CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Mathis A, Weber R, Deplazes P (2005) Zoonotic potential of the microsporidia. Clin Microbiol Rev 18:423–445CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Méteniér G, Vivarès CP (2001) Molecular characteristics and physiology of microsporidia. Microbes Inf 3:407–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Metzler A, Ehrensperger F, Wyler R (1978) Natural borna virus infection in rabbits. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B 25(2):161–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Meyer-Breckwoldt A (1996) Epidemiologische und klinische Untersuchungen zur Encephalitozoonose beim Zwergkaninchen. Dissertation, Veterinary University, HannoverGoogle Scholar
  68. Müller C (1998) Untersuchungen zur Diagnostik, Biologie und Verbreitung von Microsporidien bei Kaninchen und anderen Tierarten. Dissertation, University of ZürichGoogle Scholar
  69. Müller K, Fuchs W, Heblinski W, Teifke W, Brunnberg L, Gruber AD, Klopfleisch R (2009) Encephalitis in a rabbit caused by human Herpes virus-1. JAVMA 235(1):66–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Murray KA, Hobbs BA, Griffith JW (1985) Acute meningoencephalomyelitis in a rabbit infected with Pasteurella multocida. Lab Anim Sci 35(2):169–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Nast R, Middleton DM, Wheler CL (1996) Generalized encephalitozoonosis in a Jersey wooly rabbit. Can Vet J 37:303–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Neuschl J, Čonkova E, Krokavec P, Čelarova E, Halanova M, Hipikova V, Balent P, Šutiak V (1999) The development of encephalitozoonosis in rabbits after infection by Encephalitozoon cuniculi and treatment with albendazole. Acta Vet (Beograd) 49(4):327–334Google Scholar
  73. Neuwirt E (1988) Ein Beitrag zur Diagnose der Encephalitozoonose (Nosematose) beim Kaninchen; Vergleich zwischen direkten und indirekten Nachweismethoden. Dissertation, University of MunichGoogle Scholar
  74. Okewole EA (2008) Seroprevalence of antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi in domestic rabbits in Nigeria. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 75(1):33–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Pakes SP, Gerrity LW (1994) Protozoal Diseases. In: Manning PJ, Ringler DH, Newcomer CE (eds) The biology of the laboratory rabbit, 2nd edn. Academic, London, pp 205–224Google Scholar
  76. Petri M (1969) Studies on Nosema cuniculi found in transplantable ascites tumors with a survey of microsporidiosis in mammals. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand 204(Suppl):1–91Google Scholar
  77. Rönnebäumer K, Gross U, Bohne W (2008) The nascent parasitophorous vacuole membrane of Encephalitozoon cuniculi is formed by host cell lipids and contains pores which allow nutrient uptake. Eukaryot Cell 7(6):1001–1008CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Santaniello A, Dipineto L, Rinaldi L, Menna LF, Cringoli G, Fioretti A (2009) Serological survey of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in farm rabbits in Italy. Res Vet Sci 87(1):67–69CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Scharmann W, Reblin L, Griem W (1986) Untersuchungen über die Infektion von Kaninchen durch Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Berl Münch Tierärztl Wschr 99:20–24Google Scholar
  80. Schmidt EC, Shadduck JA (1983) Murine encephalitozoonosis model for studying the host-parasite relationship of a chronic infection. Infect Immun 40(3):936–942PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Shadduck JA (1980) Effect of fumagillin on in vitro multiplication of Encephalitozoon cuniculi. J Protozool 27(2):202–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Shadduck JA, Pakes SP (1971) Encephalitozoonosis (nosematosis) and toxoplasmosis. Am J Pathol 64(3):657–673PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Shadduck JA, Watson WT, Pakes SP, Cali A (1979) Animal infectivity of Encephalitozoon cuniculi. J Parasitol 65:123–129CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Snyder SB, Fox JG, Soave OA (1973) Sub-clinical otitis media associated with Pasteurella multocida infections in New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Lab Anim Sci 23(2):270–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Stiles J, Didier E, Ritchie B, Greenacre C, Willis M, Martin C (1997) Encephalitozoon cuniculi in the lens of a rabbit with phacoclastic uveitis: confirmation and treatment. Vet Comp Ophthalmol 7:233–238Google Scholar
  86. Suter C, Müller-Doblies UU, Hatt JM, Deplazes P (2001) Prevention and treatment of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in rabbits with fenbendazole. Vet Rec 148:478–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Thomas WB (2000) Vestibular dysfunction. Vet Clin N Am: Small Anim Pract 30:227–249Google Scholar
  88. Thomas C, Finn M, Twigg L, Deplazes P, Thompson RC (1997) Microsporidia (Encephalitozoon cuniculi) in wild rabbits in Australia. Aust Vet J 75(11):808–810CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Von Kücken U, Ludwig HJ, Lange S, Günther H, Dix B, Lange M, Müller D (1987) Eine generalisierte Erkrankung des Kaninchens durch Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Mh Vet Med 42:781–784Google Scholar
  90. Waller T (1977) The India ink immunoreaction: a method for the rapid diagnosis of encephalitozoonosis. Lab Anim 11:93–97CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Waller T (1979) Sensitivity of Encephalitozoon cuniculi to various temperatures, disinfectants and drugs. Lab Anim 13:227–230CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Waller T, Morein B, Fabiansson E (1978) Humoral immune response to infection with Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits. Lab Anim 12:145–148CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Wasson K, Peper RL (2000) Mammalian microsporidiosis. Vet Pathol 37:113–128CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Weber R, Mathis A, Deplazes P (1996) Intestinal and systemic infections due to microsporidia. Internist 37:912–918PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Weber R, Schwartz DA, Deplazes P (1999) Laboratory Diagnosis of Microsporidiosis. In: Wittner M, Weiss LM (eds) The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., pp 315–362Google Scholar
  96. Weissenböck H, Hainfellner JA, Berger J, Kasper I, Budka H (1997) Naturally occurring herpes simplex encephalitis in a domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Vet Pathol 34(1):44–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wicher V, Baughn RE, Fuentealba C, Shadduck JA, Abbruscato F, Wicher K (1991) Enteric infection with an obligate intracellular parasite, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, in an experimental model. Infect Immun 59:2225–2231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Williams DL (1999) Laboratory Animal Ophthalmology. In: Gelatt KN (ed) Veterinary Ophthalmology, 3rd edn. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 1209–1236Google Scholar
  99. Wilson JM (1979) Encephalitozoon cuniculi in wild European rabbits and a fox. Res Vet Sci 26:114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Wolfer J, Grahn B, Wilcock B, Percy D (1993) Phacoclastic uveitis in the rabbit. Prog Vet Comp Ophthalmol 3:92–97Google Scholar
  101. Wright JH, Craighead EM (1922) Infectious motor paralysis in young rabbits. J Exp Med 36:135–140CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Xu Y, Weiss LM (2005) The microsporidian polar tube: a highly specialised invasion organelle. Int J Parasitol 35:941–953CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinical Department of Small Animals and Horses, Clinic of Internal Medicine and Infectious DiseasesUniversity of Veterinary Medicine ViennaViennaAustria
  2. 2.Department of Pathobiology, Institute of Parasitology and ZoologyUniversity of Veterinary Medicine ViennaViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations