Parasitology Research

, 105:1399 | Cite as

Pyrethroid and organophosphates resistance in Anopheles (N.) nuneztovari Gabaldón populations from malaria endemic areas in Colombia

  • Idalyd Fonseca-GonzálezEmail author
  • Rocío Cárdenas
  • Martha L. Quiñones
  • Janet McAllister
  • William G. Brogdon
Original Paper


Field populations of Colombian malaria vector Anopheles (N.) nuneztovari were studied using World Health Organization (WHO) and Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bioassay techniques and through the use of biochemical microplate-based assays for resistance enzymes. Insecticides evaluated included the pyrethroids lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin, organophosphates malathion and fenitrothion, and the organochlorine dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Study sites selected were based upon malaria incidence, vector presence, and control activities in Colombia. Early stage selection for reduced susceptibility was observed in the bioassays for some locations. Data from the WHO and CDC bioassay methods were broadly consistent, with some differences noted. Evidence is presented for low-level initial selection of some resistance mechanisms such as mixed-function oxidases and modified acetylcholinesterase. Data from the site Encharcazón implies that selection for DDT-pyrethroid cross-resistance has occurred, though not likely at a level that currently threatens vector control by either class of insecticides, and further implies that knockdown resistance (kdr) may be present in those populations. Further studies using synergists and development of a kdr-specific assay for A. nuneztovari thus become priorities. The resistance levels to lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin found in the Encharcazón population are of concern since these two insecticides are currently used for both indoor spraying and treated nets. In addition, the resistance to fenitrothion, the indoor spray insecticide mostly used for this species due to their exophilic behavior, found in the El Zulia population, makes urgent to find alternatives for chemical control in these areas. These data provide the initial baselines for insecticide susceptibility profiles for A. nuneztovari in Colombia and the first report of insecticide resistance in this vector.


Malaria Malathion Malaria Vector Insecticide Resistance Deltamethrin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We acknowledge the Coordinators and the staff of the Vector Borne Diseases Sections from Antioquia, Chocó, and Norte de Santander Health Secretaries; in particular to the Entomologists Silvia Díaz, José Dolores Palacios, Wilber Gómez, David Calle, and Eulides Pabón for their collaboration with biological collections and CDC bioassays. All experimental procedures comply with the criteria of the Ethical Committee of the University of Antioquia in agreement with the current laws of Colombia.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Idalyd Fonseca-González
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rocío Cárdenas
    • 2
  • Martha L. Quiñones
    • 3
  • Janet McAllister
    • 4
  • William G. Brogdon
    • 5
  1. 1.Grupo Biología y Control de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto de BiologíaUniversidad de AntioquiaMedellínColombia
  2. 2.Instituto Departamental de SaludSubgrupo Control de VectoresCúcutaColombia
  3. 3.Departamento de Salud Pública, Facultad de MedicinaUniversidad NacionalBogotáColombia
  4. 4.Centers for Disease Control and PreventionFort CollinsUSA
  5. 5.Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA

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