Parasitology Research

, Volume 105, Issue 4, pp 1133–1138 | Cite as

In vitro and in vivo efficacies of ivermectin and cypermethrin against the cattle tick Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae)

  • Muhammad S. Sajid
  • Zafar Iqbal
  • Muhammad N. Khan
  • Ghulam Muhammad
Original Paper

Abstract

This study investigated the comparative efficacy of ivermectin and cypermethrin pour-on, for the treatment of Hyalomma anatolicum (a.) anatolicum infestations in bovines. For examining acaricidal efficacy, 480 ticks were exposed in vitro to graded doses of both the acaricides and in vivo efficacy was examined in 360 tick-infested bovines treated at the recommended doses of ivermectin (IVM) and cypermethrin (CYM) pour-on. The comparative quantitative assessment of tick burden was done on days 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 after treatment using “finger counting.” The results of the tick survival assay indicated both compounds were effective in vitro against H. a. anatolicum. The arc transformed mean surviving ticks, 24 h post immersion, was 2.66 and zero in groups treated with the highest dilutions of IVM and CYM, respectively. At 15 days post-treatment, the CYM pour-on showed a higher in vivo efficacy (no surviving ticks) compared to IVM (mean of 20 surviving ticks). A single dose of CYM and IVM was found effective for 20 and 15 days post-treatment, respectively. Additionally, a questionnaire was used to gather information from 30 small holder dairy farms on the farmer's approach toward the control of ticks. The majority (90%) of respondents were using acaricides incorrectly along with poor husbandry practices on their farms. Overuse of IVM in the tested area of Pakistan may be the reason the IVM is not as effective as expected. These results provide useful tools for the decision making in tick control, as well as providing the basis for testing the findings on provincial and national levels in future studies.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad S. Sajid
    • 1
  • Zafar Iqbal
    • 1
  • Muhammad N. Khan
    • 1
  • Ghulam Muhammad
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary ScienceUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary ScienceUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan

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