Parasitology Research

, 105:1 | Cite as

Biology of Alaria spp. and human exposition risk to Alaria mesocercariae—a review

  • Katharina MöhlEmail author
  • Knut Große
  • Ahmad Hamedy
  • Tanja Wüste
  • Petra Kabelitz
  • Ernst LückerEmail author


Recent incidental background findings of Alaria alata mesocercariae [“Distomum muscularis suis,” Duncker, 1896] in meat of wild boars during official Trichinella inspection initiated a re-assessment of the potential human health risk as posed by this parasite. The present review of the literature on Alaria biology shows that the human exposition risk should no longer be accepted to be negligible, as it demonstrates a general lack of knowledge in relevant areas of Alaria biology confounding any risk analysis. Sound risk assessment needs future studies which should concentrate on the most pressing questions of (1) the optimization and/or development of methods for reliable Alaria mesocercariae detection, (2) the distribution of the mesocercariae within their paratenic hosts, i.e., identification of potential predilection sites, particularly in wild boars, and (3) their prevalence in sylvatic populations of animals with respect to their introduction into the human food chain. Further, the degree and possibly also the species specificity of Alaria mesocercariae tenacity within the paratenic hosts and respective meat as pertaining to food technological treatments need to be elucidated. While these questions remain unanswered, it is an incontrovertible fact that Alaria mesocercariae have a potentially high human pathogenicity by both occupational and alimentary exposition.


Wild Boar Intermediate Host Definitive Host Ventral Sucker Oral Sucker 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We gratefully acknowledge the funding of parts of this work by the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV, Germany).

For their valuable technical assistance in the present study, we would like to thank Lia Kieker, Heiko Wellner, Lutz Gumpert, Carolin Gladis, and TÄ Katrin Zetzsche. Further, we would like to express our gratitude for helpful scientific input made by Dr. Walentina Holthaus, Dr. Viktor Dyachenko, Dr. Ronald Schmäschke, and in particular Dr. Karsten Nöckler.


  1. Andreas K (2006) Helminthen einheimischer Froschlurche. Vet Diss FU Berlin. Journal-Nr. 3048Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous (2003) Einstufung von Organismen. Parasiten. Herausgegeben vom Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft (BUWAL), BernGoogle Scholar
  3. Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy, and Communications, Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN)
  4. Ashton AN, Brown N, Easty P (1969) Trematode cataract in fresh water fish. J Small Anim Pract 10:471–478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baer JG (1951) Ecology of animal parasites. Univ. of Illinois Press, Urbana III, 1951Google Scholar
  6. Barbu P (1972) Beiträge zum Studium des Marderhundes, Nyctereutes procynoides ussuriensis (Matschie, 1907), aus dem Donaudelta. Säugerk Mitt 20:375–405Google Scholar
  7. Beaver PC, Little MD, Tucker CF, Reed RJ (1977) Mesocercaria in the skin of man in Louisiana. Am J Trop Med Hyg 26(3):422–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Beutling DM (2004) Lehrbuch der Schlachttier und Fleischuntersuchung. Parey Verlag Stuttgart 2004;ISBN 3-8304-4098-7:22Google Scholar
  9. BfR (2007) Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung Wildschweinfleisch kann den gefährlichen Duncker´schen Muskelegel enthalten. Stellungnahme Nr. 027/2007 des BfR vom 1. Juli 2007Google Scholar
  10. Bialasiewicz AA (2000) Neuroretinitis. Ophthalmologie 97:374–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Borgsteede FHM (1984) Helminth parasites of wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes L.) in the Netherlands. Z Parasitenkd 70:281–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bork K (1985) Kap.12 Soforttyp-Reaktionen. In: Arzneimittelnebenwirkungen an der Haut: Klinik- Diagnostik zur Erkennung der auslösenden Medikamente- Pathogenese- Therapie. 2. Auflage, SchattauerGoogle Scholar
  13. Bosma NJ (1931) Alaria mustelae sp. nov., a trematode requiring four hosts. Science 74:521–522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bosma NJ (1934) The life history of the trematode Alaria mustelae sp. nov. Trans Amer Micr Soc 53:116–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bugge G (1942a) Das sogenannte Muskeldistomum, Agamodistomum suis, ein Bewohner der Bauchhöhle des Schweines. Tierärztl Rdsch 48:146–151Google Scholar
  16. Bugge G (1942b) Der Muskelegel Dunckers beim Frosch. Zschr Fleisch-Milchhyg 54:73–76Google Scholar
  17. Burrows RB, Lillis WG (1965) Trematodes of New Jersey dogs and cats. J Parasitol 51(4):570–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Byers B, Kimura SJ (1974) Uveitis after death of a larva in the vitreous cavity. Am J Ophthalmol 77(1):63–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Castro O, Venzal JM, Felix ML (2008) Two new records of helminth parasites of domestic cat from Uruguay: Alaria alata (Goeze, 1782) (Digenea, Diplostomatidae) and Lagochilascaris major (Leiper, 1910) (Nematoda, Ascrididae). Vet Parasitol . doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2008.11.019 Google Scholar
  20. Cort WW (1918) The excretory system of Agamodistomum marcianae (LaRue), the agamodistome stage of a fork-tailed cercaria. J Parasitol 4:130–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cort WW, Brooks ST (1928) Studies of the holostome cercariae from Douglas Lake, Michigan. Trans Am Microscop Soc 47:179–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cuckler AC (1940) Studies on the migration and development of Alaria spp (Trematoda: Strigeata) in the definitive host. J Parasitol Suppl 26:36Google Scholar
  23. Cuckler AC (1941) Morphological and biological studies on certain strigeid trematodes of mammals. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn.Google Scholar
  24. Cuckler AC (1949) Morphological and biological studies on certain strigeid trematodes of mammals. Summaries of Ph.D. Theses, Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 4:45–47Google Scholar
  25. Danijarow IA (1968) Veterinärenzyklopädie Bd. 1 (russ.). MoskauGoogle Scholar
  26. Dick TA, Leonard RD (1979) Helminth parasites of Fisher, Martes pennanti (Erxleben), from Manitoba, Canada. J Wild Dis 15(3):409–412Google Scholar
  27. Dönges J (1969) Entwicklungs- und Lebensdauer von Metacercarien. Z Parasitenk 31:340–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dollfus RPh, Chabaud AG (1953) Distomum musculorum suis (HJC Duncker, 1896), mésoceraire d´Alaria alata (JAE Goeze, 1782) (Trematoda Strigeata) chez un sanglier (Sus scrofa L., 1758, Fera). Ann Parasitol humaine et comparée 28:352–364Google Scholar
  29. Duncker HCJ (1881a) Distomeen im Schweinefleisch. Zschr mikr Fleischschau 2(3):23–24Google Scholar
  30. Duncker HCJ (1881b) Muskel-Distomeen. Zschr mikr Fleischschau 2(4):141Google Scholar
  31. Duncker HCJ (1884) Distomeen im Schweinefleisch Zschr mikr Fleischschau 3:39–42Google Scholar
  32. Duncker HCJ (1896) Die Muskel-Distomeen. Berl tierärztl Wschr 24:279–282Google Scholar
  33. Duncker HCJ (1897) Die Muskel-Distomeen. Zschr Fleisch-Milchhyg 7:197–198Google Scholar
  34. Egger G (2005) Kap 2 Zellen der unspezifischen Abwehr. In: Die akute Entzündung: Grundlagen, Pathophysiologie und klinische Erscheinungsbilder der unspezifischen Immunität. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  35. Eira C, Vingada J, Torres J, Miquel J (2006) The helminth community of the Red Fox (Vulpes Vulpes), in Duans de Mira (Portugal) and its effects on host condition. Wildl Biol Pract 2(1):26–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fernandez BJ, Cooper JD, Cullen JB, Freeman RS, Ritchie AC, Scott AA, Stuart PE (1976) Systemic infection with Alaria Americana (Trematoda). Can Med Assoc J 115:1111–1114Google Scholar
  37. Foster GW, Kinsella JM, Sheppard BJ, Cunningham MW (2008) Transmammary Infection of free-ranging Florida Panther neonates by Alaria marcianae (Trematoda: Diplostomatidae). J Parasitol 29:1Google Scholar
  38. Freeman RS (1966) Helminth parasites of the red fox in Finland. Proc Int Congr Parasitol Rome (1964):482Google Scholar
  39. Freeman RS, Stuart PE, Cullen SJ, Ritchie AC, Mildon A, Fernandes BJ, Bonin R (1976) Fatal human infection with mesocercariae of the trematode Alaria Americana. Am J Trop Med Hyg 25:803–807PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Furmaga S, Wysocki E (1951) Of the helminthofauna of foxes in the Lublin voivodships territory. Ann Uni M Curie-Sklodowska Sectio DD 6:97–123Google Scholar
  41. Gestaldi B (1854) Cenni sopra alcuni nuovi Elminti della Rana esculenta con nuove osservatione sul Codonocephalus mutabilis (Diesing). Tesi per aggregazione al Collegio della Facolta delle Scienze Fisiche e Mathemetiche nella R Univ di Torino:25-36Google Scholar
  42. Goldberg SR, Bursey CR, Cheam H (1998) Helminths of two native frog species (Rana chiricahuensis, Rana yavapaiensis) and one introduced frog species (Rana catesbeiana) (Ranidae) from Arizona. J Parasitol 84(1):175–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Goldberg SR, Bursey CR, McKinnell RG, Tan IS (2001) Helminths of northern leopard frogs (Rana Pipiens, Ranidae) from North Dakota and South Dakota. West N Am Naturalist 61(2):248–251Google Scholar
  44. Goüy de Bellocq J, Sarà M, Casanova JC, Feliu C, Morand S (2003) A comparison of the structure of helminth communities in the woodmouse, Apodemus sylvaticus, on islands and the western Mediterranean and continental Europe. Parasitol Res 90:64–70Google Scholar
  45. Große K, Wüste T (2004) Funde des Duncker’schen Muskelegels bei der Trichinenuntersuchung mittels Verdauungsverfahrens. DVG 45. Arbeitstagung des Arbeitsgebiets “Lebensmittelhygiene” 28.09-01.10.2004;Garmisch PartenkirchenGoogle Scholar
  46. Große K, Wüste T (2006) Der Dunker’sche Muskelegel Funde bei der Trichinenuntersuchung mittels Verdauungsverfahren. Fleischwirtschaft 4:106–108Google Scholar
  47. Große K, Wüste T (2008) Duncker’scher Muskelegel—Risiko für den Verbraucher? 8. Fachtagung Fleisch- und Geflügelfleischhygiene für Angehörige der Veterinärverwaltung 04.03-05.03.2008, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  48. Guildal JA, Clausen B (1972) Endoparasites from one hundred Danish red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Norwegian J Zool 21:329–330Google Scholar
  49. Hedges TR (2000) Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinopathy. Principles and practice of ophthalmology clinical practice 3:2167–2171Google Scholar
  50. Hiepe TH (1985) Lehrbuch der Parasitologie Bd 3: Veterinärmedizinische Helminthologie. Fischer, Stuttgart, JenaGoogle Scholar
  51. Hinaidy HK (1976) A further contribution to the parasite fauna of the red fox, Vulpes vulpes (L.), in Austria. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B 23(1):66–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hoffmann GL (1976) Parasites of North American freshwater fishes. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA, USAGoogle Scholar
  53. Ivanov VM, Semenova NN (2000) Parasitological consequences of animal introduction. Russ J Ecol 31(4):281–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jakšić S, Sunčica U, Vučemilo M (2002) Nachweis von Mesozerkarien des Saugwurms Alaria alata im Wildschweinfleisch. Z Jagdwiss 48:203–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jančev J, Ridjakov N (1978) Helminth fauna of the fox (Vulpes vulpes crucigera, Bechstein) in north western Bulgaria. Chelminthologija, Sofia 4:73–96Google Scholar
  56. Jogeland M, Raue H, Petersson U (2002) Inventering av invartesparasiter hos hundar i Skane 1999–2000. [Inventory of internal parasites in dogs in Skane 1999–2000]. Svensk Veterinartidning 54(13):635–637Google Scholar
  57. Johnson PTJ, Lunde KB, Ritchie EG, Launer AE (1999) The effect of trematode infection on amphibian limb development and survivorship. Science 284(5415):802–804PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Joyeux Ch, Baer JG (1934) Les hôtes d´attente dans le cycle evolutif des helmintes. Biol Med Paris 24(9):482–506Google Scholar
  59. Judin VG (1977) Enotovidnaja sobaka Primorja i Priamurja (russ.). Izd Nauka, MoskvaGoogle Scholar
  60. Kimber KR, Kollias GV 2nd (2000) Infectious and parasitic diseases and contaminant-related problems of North American river otters (Lontra canadensis): a review. J Zoo Wild Med 31(4):452–472Google Scholar
  61. Komiya Y (1938) Die Entwicklung des Exkretionssystems einiger Trematodenlarven aus Alster und Elbe, nebst Bemerkungen über ihren Entwicklungszyklus. Parasitol Res 10(3):340–385Google Scholar
  62. Kozlowska J (1957) On the knowledge of the helminth fauna of wild and bred foxes. Acta Parasitol Pol 5:181–192Google Scholar
  63. Kramer MH, Eberhard ML, Blankenberg TA (1996) Respiratory symptoms and subcutaneous granuloma caused by mesocercariae: a case report. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55:447–448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Leibovitz L, Riis RC, Georgi M (1980) Digenetic trematode infection. J Americ Vet Med Ass 177:40–42Google Scholar
  65. Leiper RT (1920) Exhibition of lantern-slides illustrating the experimental transmission of some helminth infections. Proc Zool Soc London III(XXIX):438Google Scholar
  66. Lerche M, Goerttler V, Rievel H (1957) Lehrbuch der tierärztlichen Lebensmittelüberwachung. Verlag M&H Schaper, HannoverGoogle Scholar
  67. Ljubaschenko CJ, Petrov AM (1962) Krankheiten der Pelztiere, MoskauGoogle Scholar
  68. Loos-Frank B, Zeyhle E (1982) The intestinal helminths of the red fox and some other carnivores in southwest Germany. Z Parasitenkd 67(1):99–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Löscher T, v Sonnenburg F (2005) Parasitosen. In: Therapie innerer Krankheiten von Gustav Baumgartner., 11. Auflage, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  70. Lozanić BM (1966) Contribution a la cannaissance de la faune des helminthes chez le renard de nos regions (Vulpes vulpes). Acta vet Beogr 16:301–304Google Scholar
  71. Lucius R, Böckeler W, Pfeiffer AS (1988) Parasiten der Haus-, Nutz- und Wildtiere Schleswig-Holsteins: Parasiten der inneren Organe des Rotfuchses (Vulpes vulpes). Z Jagdwiss 34:242–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lücker E, Hartung J (2006) Zum Problem der Risikobewertung so tenanted Trichinellen-freier Betriebe und Trichinellen-freier Gebiete. Proceedings 46. DVG Arbeitstagung des Arbeitsgebietes “Lebensmittelhygiene” 2005, Garmisch- Partenkirchen, DVG Service GmbH, Gießen, ISBN 3-938026-37-5:251-254Google Scholar
  73. Lutz A (1921) Zur Kenntnis des Entwicklungszyklus der Holostomiden. Zbl Bakt I Orig 86:124–129Google Scholar
  74. Lutz A (1933a) Zur Kenntnis des Distoma tertracystis (Gestaldi) und ähnlicher Formen, die fälschlich als Agamodistomum bezeichnet werden. Mem inst Oswaldo Cruz 27:50–60Google Scholar
  75. Lutz A (1933b) Beobachtungen über Brasilianische Dicranocercarien. Mem inst Oswaldo Cruz 27:377–402Google Scholar
  76. Marshall A (1972) Textbook of Zoology: Invertebrates. Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  77. McDonald HR, Kazacos KR, Schatz H, Johnson RN (1994) Two cases of intraocular infection with Alaria mesocercaria (Trematoda). Am J Ophtalmol 117:447–455Google Scholar
  78. Mehlhorn H (2008) Encyclopedia of parasitology. Third edition. Springer, HeidelbergCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Moks E, Jõgisalu I, Saarma U, Talvik H, Järvis T, Valdmann H (2006) Helminthologic survey of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Estonia, with an emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus. J Wildl Dis 42(2):359–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Morozov FN (1937) Discovery of encysted trematodes in the internal organs of polecats (russ.). Trudy Gor´kovsk Gosudarst Pedagog Inst 1:115–120Google Scholar
  81. Nikitina EN (1986) Trematode larvae in snails of Lake Glubukoe. Hydrobiologia 141:139–141Google Scholar
  82. Odening K (1960) Studien an Trematoden aus Schlangen, Vögeln und Säugetieren. Monatsbericht der Deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 2(7):437–455Google Scholar
  83. Odening K (1961a) Zur Kenntnis des Exkretionssystems einiger Digenetischer Trematoden (Unterordnungen Plagiorchiata, Brachylaemata, Strigeata). Z Parasitenkd 204:440–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Odening K (1961b) Der „Dunckersche Muskelegel“ kann experimentell auf den Affen übertragen werden. Monatshefte für Veterinärmedizin 16:395–399Google Scholar
  85. Odening K (1963) Zur Diagnostik der Mesocercarie von Alaria alata, eines möglichen Parasiten des Menschen in Europa, an Hand experimenteller Befunde beim Affen. Mber Dtsch Akad Wiss Berlin 5:385–390Google Scholar
  86. Odlaug TO (1940) Morphology and life history of the trematode Alaria intermedia. Trans Am Microscop Soc 59:490–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Olivier L, Odlaug TO (1938) A new mesocercaria (Trematoda: Strigeata) with a note on its further development. J Parasitol 24:369–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ostertag R v, Schönberg F (1955) Lehrbuch der Schlachttier- und Fleischuntersuchung. Enke, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  89. Papazahariadou M, Founta A, Papadopoulos E, Chliounakis S, Antoniadou-Sotiriadou K, Theodorides Y (2007) Gastrointestinal parasites of shepherd and hunting dogs in the Serres Prefecture, Northern Greece. Vet Parasitol 148(2):170–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pearson JC (1956) Studies of the life cycles and morphology of the larval stages of Alaria arisaemoides (Augustine and Uribe, 1927) and Alaria canis (LaRue and Fallis, 1936) (Trematoda: Diplostomatidae). Can J Zool 34:295–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Pearson JC (1958) Observations on the morphology and life cycle of Strigea elegans (Chandler & Rausch, 1947) (Trematoda: Strigeidae). J Parasitol 45(2):155–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pence DB, Dowler RC (1979) Helminth parasitism in the Badger (Taxidea taxus) from the western Great Plains. USA Proc Helminthol Soc Wash 46:245–253Google Scholar
  93. Pence DB, Knowlton FF, Windberg LA (1988) Transmission of Ancylostoma caninum and Alaria marcianae in coyotes (Canis latrans). J Wildl Dis 24(3):560–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Pence DB, Tewes ME, Laak LL (2003) Helminths of the Ocelot from Southern Texas. J Wildl Dis 39(3):683–689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Persson L, Christensson D (1971) Endoparasites of foxes in Sweden. Zool Revy 33:17–28Google Scholar
  96. Petrov AM, Dubnickij AA (1950b) Die Metazerkarien-Alariose der Zobel (russ.). Trudy vsesojuznogo Instituta Gel´mintologii im Akad K I Skrjabina 4:20–22Google Scholar
  97. Petrov AM, Dubnickij AA (1950a) Sables–metacercarial alariosis (russ.). Karakulevodstvo I Zverovodstvo 3:70–71Google Scholar
  98. Poole BC, Chadee K, Dick TA (1983) Helminth parasites of Pine Marten, Martes Americana (Turton), from Mantitoba, Canada. J Wildl Dis 19(1):10–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Popiołek M, Szczesna J, Nowaka S, Mysłajeka RW (2007) Helminth infections in faecal samples of wolves Canis lupus L. from the western Beskidy Mountains in southern Poland. J Helminthol 81(4):339–344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Potekhina LF (1951) The life cycle of Alaria alata and alariosis in foxes and dogs (russ.). Doklady Akad Nauk SSSR 76:325–327Google Scholar
  101. Riis RC, Georgi ME, Leibovitz L, Smith JS (2006) Ocular metacercarial infection of the oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau (L). J Fish Dis 4(5):433–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Roberts L, Janovy Jr J (2000) Foundations of Parasitology (sixth edition). New York (2000), McGraw-HillGoogle Scholar
  103. Ruas JL, Müller G, Farias NA, Gallina T, Lucas AS, Pappen FG, Sinkoc AL, Brum JG (2008) Helminths of Pampas fox, Pseudalopex gymnocercus (Fischer, 1814) and of Crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766) in the South of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 17(2):87–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Ruszkowski J (1922) Die postembryonale Entwicklung von Hemistomum alatum Dies. auf Grund experimenteller Untersuchungen. Bull Intern Acad Polon Sci Classe Sci Math Nat Sér B, pp 237–250Google Scholar
  105. Saar C (1957) Parasitologische Untersuchungen beim Rotfuchs (Vulpes vulpes) im Raum von West-Berlin. Vet Diss FU Berlin (1957)Google Scholar
  106. Saeed I, Maddox-Hyttel C, Monrad J, Kapel CM (2006) Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark. Vet Parasitol 139(1–3):168–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Savinov VA (1953a) Die Besonderheiten der Entwicklung von Alaria alata (Goeze, 1782) im Körper des End- und des Reservewirtes (russ.). Raboty po Gel´mintologii k 75-letiju Akad K I Skrjabina, pp 611–616Google Scholar
  108. Savinov VA (1953b) Die Entwicklung von Alaria alata (Goeze, 1782) im Körper der Hunde (russ.). Trudy vsesojuznogo Instituta Gel´mintologii im Akad K I Skrjabina 5:63–64Google Scholar
  109. Savinov VA (1954) Zu Frage einiger Besonderheiten der Stadienentwicklung der Strigeata und der Rolle der verschiedenen Wirte in dieser Entwicklung (russ.). Učen Zap vologodsk ped Inst 15:245–306Google Scholar
  110. Schnieder T (2006) Veterinärmedizinische Parasitologie, Begr. v. Josef Boch u. Rudolf Supperer. 6. Auflage, Parey bei MVSGoogle Scholar
  111. Schuster R, Schierhorn K, Heidecke D, Ansorge H (1993) Untersuchungen zur Endoparasitenfauna des Marderhundes Nyctereutes procynoides (Gray, 1834) in Ostdeutschland. Beitr Jagd Wildforschung 18:83–87Google Scholar
  112. Shea M, Maberley AL, Walters J, Freeman RS, Fallis AM (1973) Intraretinal larval trematode. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 77(6):784–791Google Scholar
  113. Shimalov VV, Shimalov VT, Shimalov AV (2000a) Helminth fauna of otter (Lutra lutra Linnaeus, 1758) in Belorussian Polesie. Parasitol Res 86(6):528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Shimalov VV, Shimalov VT, Shimalov AV (2000b) Helminth fauna of the wolf (Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758) in Belorussian Polesie. Parasitol Res 86(2):163–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Shimalov VV, Shimalov VT, Shimalov AV (2000c) Helminth fauna of Snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes) in Belorussian Polesie. Parasitol Res 86:340–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Shimalov VV, Shimalov VT, Shimalov AV (2001d) Helminth fauna of the stoat (Mustela erminea Linneaus, 1758) and the weasel (M. nivalis Linnaeus, 1758) in Belorussian Polesie. Parasitol Res 87(8):680–681PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Shimalov VV, Shimalov VT, Shimalov AV (2001a) Helminth fauna of the European mole (Talpa europaea Linnaeus, 1758) in Belorussian Polesie. Parasitol Res 87(9):790–791PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Shimalov VV, Shimalov VT, Shimalov AV (2001b) Helminth fauna of the American mink (Mustela vison Schreber, 1777) in Belorussian Polesie. Parasitol Res 87(10):886–887PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Shimalov VV, Shimalov VT, Shimalov AV (2001c) Helminth fauna of toads in Belorussian Polesie. Parasitol Res 87(10):84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Shimalov VV, Shimalov VT, Shimalov AV (2002) Helminth fauna of the racoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides Gray, 1834) in Belorussian Polesie. Parasitol Res 88(10):944–945PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Shimalov VV, Shimalov VT, Shimalov AV (2003) Helminth fauna of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus, 1758) in southern Belarus. Parasitol Res 89(1):77–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Shoop WL, Corkum KC (1981) Epidemiology of Alaria marcianae mesocercariae in Louisiana. J Parasitol 67(6):928–931PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Shoop WL, Corkum KC (1983) Transmammary infection of paratenic and definitive hosts with Alaria marcianae (trematoda) mesocercariae. J Parasitol 69(4):731–735PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Shoop WL, Corkum KC (1984a) Transmammary infection of newborn by larval trematodes. Science 223(4640):1082–1083PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Shoop WL, Corkum KC (1984b) Pathway of mesocercariae of Alaria marcianae (Trematoda) through the mammary glands of lactating mice. J Parasitol 70(3):333–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Shoop WL, Corkum KC (1987) Maternal transmission by Alaria marcianae (Trematoda) and the concept of amphiparatenesis. J Parasitol 73(1):110–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Shoop WL, Font WF, Malatesta PF (1990) Transmammary transmission of mesocercariae of Alaria marcianae (Trematoda) in experimentally infected primates. J Parasitol 76(6):869–873PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Staskiewicz RBS (1947) Studia nad Agamodistomum muscolorum suis. Med Weterynar (Poland) 31:28–31Google Scholar
  129. Stefański W, Tarczyński S (1953) Sur le développement de l´Agamodistomum suis Duncker, 1881. Acta Parasitol Polonica 1:149–154Google Scholar
  130. Sudarikov WE (1960) In: Skrjabin KI Trematodes of animals and man, essentials of trematodology. Ac Sci USSR Helm Lab, Moskow (1960), Israel program f. sci. transl. (1965)Google Scholar
  131. Thiess A (2006) Untersuchungen zur Helminthenfauna und zum Vorkommen von Trichinella sp. beim Marderhund (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Brandenburg. Vet Diss FU BerlinGoogle Scholar
  132. Timofeev NE (1900) Les trématodes des amphibiens et reptiles des environs de Kharkov. Trav soc naturalistes Univ imp Kharkov 24:137–166Google Scholar
  133. Umur Ş (1998) Bir köpekte Alaria alata olgusu. Tr J of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 22:89–92Google Scholar
  134. Wallace FG (1939) The life cycle of Pharyngostomum cordatum (Diesing) Ciurea (Trematoda: Alariidae). Trans Am Microscop Soc 58:49–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Williams BM (1976) The intestinal parasites of the red fox in south west Wales. Br Vet J 132(3):309–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Wirkerhauser T (1980) Trichinellose, ein altes Problem in neuem Gewand. Veterinärstation:3-4Google Scholar
  137. Wójcik AR, Grygon-Franckiewicz B, Zbikowska E (2001) The studies of the invasion of Alaria alata (Goeze, 1782) in the Province of Kuyavia and Pomerania. Wiad Parazytol 47(3):423–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Wojcik AR, Grygon-Franckiewicz B, Zbikowska E (2002) Current data of Alaria alata (Goeze, 1782) according to own studies. Medycyna Weterynaryjna 58(7):517–519Google Scholar
  139. Wolfe A, Hogan S, Maguire D, Fitzpatrick C, Vaughan L, Wall D, Hayden TJ, Mulcahy D (2001) Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Ireland as hosts for parasites of potential zoonotic and veterinary significance. Vet Rec 149:759–763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Yastrebov VB, Gorokhov VV, Shestakov AM (2005) To the detection of the trematode mesocercariae alaria alata in the blood of domestic dogs and cats (russ.). Medicina Moskva 4:48–51Google Scholar

Cited legal texts

  1. 77/96/EEC Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Veterinary Measures relating to public health—Detection of Trichinella spiralis in pork with a pooled sample digestion method using a magnetic stirrer and two separatory funnels—22 June 1998. Off. J. Eur. Commun. N L026 of 31/01/1977:0067Google Scholar
  2. 64/433/EEC Council Directive 64/433/EEC of 26 June 1964 on health problems affecting intra-Community trade in fresh meat. Off. J. Eur. Commun. N B121 of 29/07/1964:2012Google Scholar
  3. 92/120/EEC Council Directive 92/120/EEC of 17 December 1992 on the conditions for granting temporary and limited derogations from specific Community health rules on the production and marketing of certain products of animal origin. Off. J. Eur. Commun. N L062 of 15/03/1993:0086Google Scholar
  4. 2075/2005/EC Commission Regulation (EC) No 2075/2005 of 5 December 2005 laying down specific rules on official controls for Trichinella in meat.Google Scholar
  5. 854/2004/EC Regulation (EC) No 854/2004 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 29 April 2004 laying down rules for the organisation of official controls on products of animal origin intended for human consumptionGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of LeipzigLeipzigGermany
  2. 2.Stadt Brandenburg an der Havel Gesundheits-, Veterinär- und Lebensmittelüberwachungsamtder HavelGermany
  3. 3.Landkreis Uckermark, Gesundheits- und VeterinäramtPrenzlauGermany

Personalised recommendations