Evaluation of antileishmanial potential of Tinospora sinensis against experimental visceral leishmaniasis
The chemotherapeutic interventions against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are limited and facing serious concerns of toxicity, high cost, and emerging drug resistance. There is a greater interest in new drug developments from traditionally used medicinal plants which offers unprecedented diversity in structures and bioactivity. With this rationale, ethanolic extract of Tinospora sinensis Linn and its four fractions were tested in vitro against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes and in vivo in Leishmania donovani infected hamsters. Ethanolic extract exhibited an appreciable activity against promastigotes (IC50 37.6 ± 6.2 μg/ml) and intracellular amastigotes (IC50 29.8 ± 3.4 μg/ml). In hamsters, it resulted in 76.2 ± 9.2% inhibition at 500 mg/kg/day × 5 oral dose level. Among fractions, n-butanol imparted highest in vitro and in vivo activities. Ethanolic extract and butanol fraction also enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) release. The results indicate that T. sinensis may provide new lead molecules for the development of alternative drugs against VL.
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