Parasitology Research

, Volume 102, Issue 3, pp 561–565 | Cite as

Evaluation of antileishmanial potential of Tinospora sinensis against experimental visceral leishmaniasis

  • Nasib Singh
  • Awanish Kumar
  • Prasoon Gupta
  • Kailash Chand
  • Mukesh Samant
  • Rakesh Maurya
  • Anuradha Dube
Short Communication

Abstract

The chemotherapeutic interventions against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are limited and facing serious concerns of toxicity, high cost, and emerging drug resistance. There is a greater interest in new drug developments from traditionally used medicinal plants which offers unprecedented diversity in structures and bioactivity. With this rationale, ethanolic extract of Tinospora sinensis Linn and its four fractions were tested in vitro against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes and in vivo in Leishmania donovani infected hamsters. Ethanolic extract exhibited an appreciable activity against promastigotes (IC50 37.6 ± 6.2 μg/ml) and intracellular amastigotes (IC50 29.8 ± 3.4 μg/ml). In hamsters, it resulted in 76.2 ± 9.2% inhibition at 500 mg/kg/day × 5 oral dose level. Among fractions, n-butanol imparted highest in vitro and in vivo activities. Ethanolic extract and butanol fraction also enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) release. The results indicate that T. sinensis may provide new lead molecules for the development of alternative drugs against VL.

References

  1. Bogdan NC, Rollinghoff M (1998) The immune response to Leishmania: mechanism of parasite control and evasion. Int J Parasitol 28:121–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chopra RN, Nayer SL, Chopra IC (1956) Glossary of Indian medicinal plants. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, India, p 244Google Scholar
  3. Croft SL, Sundar S, Fairlamb AH (2006) Drug resistance in leishmaniasis. Clin Microbiol Rev 19:111–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cruz I, Nieto J, Moreno J, Canavate C, Desjeux P, Alvar J (2006) Leishmania/HIV co-infections in the second decade. Indian J Med Res 123:357–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Dube A, Singh N, Sundar S, Singh N (2005) Refractoriness to the treatment of sodium stibogluconate in Indian kala-azar field isolates persists in in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Parasitol Res 96:216–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dube A, Singh N, Saxena A, Lakshmi V (2007) Antileishmanial potential of a marine sponge, Haliclona exigua (Krikpatrick) against experimental visceral leishmaniasis. Parasitol Res 101:317–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fournet A, Munoz V (2002) Natural products as trypanocidal, antileishmanial and antimalarial drugs. Curr Top Med Chem 2:1215–1237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Guerin PJ, Olliaro P, Sundar S, Boelaert M, Croft SL, Desjeux P, Wasunna MK, Bryceson ADM (2002) Visceral leishmaniasis: current status of control, diagnosis, and treatment, and a proposed research and development agenda. Lancet Infect Dis 2:494–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jain SK, DeFilipps RA (1991) Medicinal plants of India, vol. 2. Reference Publications, Algonac, Michigan, USAGoogle Scholar
  10. Kayser O, Kiderlen AF, Croft SL (2003) Natural products as antiparasitic drugs. Parasitol Res 90:S55–S62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Li RW, Lin GD, Myers SP, Leach DN (2003) Anti-inflammatory activity of Chinese medicinal vine plants. J Ethnopharmacol 85:61–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Manjrekar PN, Jolly CL, Narayanan S (2000) Comparative studies of the immunomodulatory activity of Tinospora cordifolia and Tinospora sinensis. Fitoterapia 71:254–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Rastogi RP, Mehrotra BN (1998) Compendium of Indian medicial plants, Vol. 5. Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow and National Institute of Science Communications, New Delhi, pp 853–854Google Scholar
  14. Rocha LG, Almeida JR, Macedo RO, Barbosa-Filho JM (2005) A review of natural products with antileishmanial activity. Phytomedicine 12:514–535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Singh N, Mishra PK, Kapil A, Arya KR, Maurya R, Dube A (2005) Efficacy of Desmodium gangeticum extract and its fractions against experimental visceral leishmaniasis. J Ethnopharmacol 98:83–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Singh N, Samant M, Gupta SK, Kumar A, Dube A (2007) Age-influenced population kinetics and immunological responses of Leishmania donovani in hamsters. Parasitol Res 101:919–924PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Stafford JL, Neumann NF, Belosevic M (2002) Macrophage-mediated innate host defense against protozoan parasites. Crit Rev Microbiol 28:187–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sundar S (2001) Drug resistance in Indian visceral leishmaniasis. Trop Med Int Heal 6:849–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sundar S, Jha TK, Thakur CP, Engel J, Sindermann H, Fischer C, Junge K, Bryceson A, Berman J (2002) Oral miltefosine for Indian visceral leishmaniasis. N Eng J Med 347:1739–1746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ueda-Nakamura T, Mendonca-Filho RR, Morgado-Dıaz JA, Maza PK, Filho BPD, Cortez DAG, Alviano DS, Rosa MS, Lopes AH, Alviano CS, Nakamura CV (2006) Antileishmanial activity of Eugenol-rich essential oil from Ocimum gratissimum. Parasitol Int 55:99–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wealth of India (1976) Raw materials, Vol. X. Publication and Information Directorate, CSIR, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  22. Yonemitsu M, Fukuda N, Kimura T (1993) Studies on the constituents of Tinospora sinensis; I. separation and structure of new phenolic glycoside tinosinen. Planta Med 59:552–553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nasib Singh
    • 1
  • Awanish Kumar
    • 1
  • Prasoon Gupta
    • 2
  • Kailash Chand
    • 2
  • Mukesh Samant
    • 1
  • Rakesh Maurya
    • 2
  • Anuradha Dube
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of ParasitologyCentral Drug Research InstituteLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Division of Medicinal and Process ChemistryCentral Drug Research InstituteLucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations