Ticks of small ruminants in China
- 415 Downloads
The importance of ticks and tick-borne diseases of small ruminants in China is discussed. Of the 109 species of ticks identified to date in China, 45 species infest small ruminants. Five species have been proved to be involved, or possibly involved, in the transmission of tick-borne diseases. Anaplasma ovis, Babesia motasi, Babesia ovis and two unidentified species of Theileria, have been recorded in small ruminants in China. The diseases caused by these organisms are widespread in China, causing great economic losses, estimated at approximately 70 million USD per annum. Anaplasmosis occurs from September to March in Inner Mongolia and during spring in other areas. Babesiosis and theileriosis occur in March to June in northwestern China. The vectors of A. ovis are Dermacentor nuttalli, Hyalomma asiaticum and Rhipicephalus pumilio. These three species of ticks do not appear to transmit A. ovis transstadially or transovarially, but rather through movement of partially engorged, infected adult ticks from A. ovis carrier animals. The vector ticks of the two species of Babesia have not been very well documented, but at least two species of Haemaphysalis are thought to transmit them. Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis transmits the two as yet unidentified species of Theileria transstadially. Priorities for future research on these diseases are summarised.
KeywordsSmall Ruminant Babesia Babesiosis Unidentified Species Sheep Wool
This study was supported in part by Specific Fund for Sino-Europe Cooperation (Project 863), MOST, China; The Outstanding Research Fellowship of CAAS, International Cooperation Fund and Normal Fund of NSFC, Beijing, China, and projects of the European Commission (EPIZONE, ICTTD and INCOME).
- Bureau of Veterinary, Ministry of Agriculture, People’s Republic of China (2006) Animal Health in China (2004–2005), http://www.agri.gov.cn/
- Guan GQ, Yin H, Luo JX, Lu WS, Zhang QC, Gao YL, Lu BY (2002) Transmission of Babesia sp to sheep with field-collected Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis Parasitol Res 88:22s–24sGoogle Scholar
- Guo G, Xu XZ (1964) Investigation on the Ixodea in Xingjiang. Proceeding of 1st National Meeting on Study of Veterinary Parasitology, Chengdu, pp 23–52Google Scholar
- Kong FY (1981) Hard ticks of livestock. Parasitology of Livestock, Agricultural, Beijing, pp 293–315Google Scholar
- Li WX (1987) Ecological distribution of ticks in Liaoning Provnce. Acta Insect 30:180–185Google Scholar
- Li ZM, Hao YK, Yu XQ, Yan HJ, Ding YT (1986) Incubation test on Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis and Dermancentor silvarum and transmission experiment of Theileria hirci. Chin J Vet Sci Technol 7:36–39Google Scholar
- Lu WS, Yin H, Lu WX, Zhang QC, Dou HF, Yu F (1990) Studies on anaplasmosis in small ruminants: transmission of anaplasmosis by ticks. Chin J Vet Sci Technol 12:8–9Google Scholar
- Teng KF, Jiang ZJ (1991) Economic insect fauna of China, Fasc 39 Acari: Ixodidae. Science, Beijing, pp 52–349Google Scholar
- Wang XE (1980) Ixodea in Gansu Province. Acta Lanzhou Univ 3: 87–92Google Scholar
- Yin H. Luo JX, Lu W-SH, Lu WX, Zhang QC, Wang YY. Liu TB, Lu GQ, Li ZH-Y, Dou YL, Zhao PY, Chang SM (1997b) Isolation of Babesia motasi and Babesia ovis in China and morphological observation. Chin J Vet Sci Technol 27:7–9Google Scholar
- Zhang BH (1964) Studies on parasitic ticks in Nanjing region. Acta Animals 16:132–138Google Scholar