Evaluation of human IgG class and subclass antibodies to a 24 kDa antigenic component of Gnathostoma spinigerum for the serodiagnosis of gnathostomiasis
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The immunoglobulin G class (total IgG) and subclass (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) antibody responses to the spirurid worm Gnathostoma spinigerum were analyzed by immunoblotting technique for the antibodies’ potential use in the serodiagnosis of human gnathostomiasis. Serum samples from patients with proven gnathostomiasis and from clinically suspected cases of gnathostomiasis with migratory swelling were tested. Sera from patients with other parasitic illnesses and from healthy volunteers were also analyzed. The total IgG antibody to an antigenic band of approximately 24 kDa from a somatic extract of G. spinigerum advanced third-stage larvae (GS24) gave the highest sensitivity (91.6%) and 87.8% specificity. Individual IgG subclass detection had a lower sensitivity than the detection of specific total IgG antibody, but IgG4 had a slightly higher specificity (93.9%). However, for cost effectiveness, we suggest that anti GS24 total IgG is sufficient for the routine serodiagnosis of human gnathostomiasis as well as for seroepidemiological studies in developing countries.