Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene and nuclear rDNA regions of Enterobius vermicularis parasitic in captive chimpanzees with special reference to its relationship with pinworms in humans
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Sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene, nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA), and 5S rDNA of Enterobius vermicularis from captive chimpanzees in five zoos/institutions in Japan were analyzed and compared with those of pinworm eggs from humans in Japan. Three major types of variants appearing in both CO1 and ITS2 sequences, but showing no apparent connection, were observed among materials collected from the chimpanzees. Each one of them was also observed in pinworms in humans. Sequences of 5S rDNA were identical in the materials from chimpanzees and humans. Phylogenetic analysis of CO1 gene revealed three clusters with high bootstrap value, suggesting considerable divergence, presumably correlated with human evolution, has occurred in the human pinworms. The synonymy of E. gregorii with E. vermicularis is supported by the molecular evidence.
KeywordsCaptive Chimpanzee rDNA Space Sequence Pinworm Infection Human Pinworm Maximum Pairwise Sequence
Sincere thanks are rendered to H. Takaoka, T. Saikawa, K. Mifune, A. Miyata, M. Nasu, and T. Itoga of Oita University/Oita Medical University for their kind advice and encouragement; to K. Murata, Nihon University, A. Uchida, Azabu University, H. Hirai and S. Goto, Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, H. Udono, and Y. Emi, Kumamoto Primatological Park, and D. Fukui, Asahiyama Zoo, for their kindness in supplying materials, and to G. B. Rodgers for his review of the manuscript. This study was partly supported by a JSPS grant no. 12640680.
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