Parasitology Research

, Volume 97, Issue 2, pp 141–149

Life cycle strategy of Hysterothylacium aduncum to become the most abundant anisakid fish nematode in the North Sea

Original Paper

Abstract

The present study demonstrates the influence of physical systems (mixed and stratified waters) on the occurrence and distribution of the anisakid nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum in commercially important gadiform fish species from the central and northern North Sea. Stratified waters are essential in structuring marine food webs and are therefore also important for the transfer of fish parasites to their host species. During two research cruises in 2001, 308 haddocks (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and 203 whitings (Merlangius merlangus) were caught in the central and northern North Sea and were examined for anisakid nematode parasites and food composition. Additionally, the most abundant pelagic invertebrates, hyperiid amphipods, of the investigated area were sampled and examined with regard to their parasite infestation rates. The influence of stratified waters on the infestation of the gadiform fish species by H. aduncum was shown by ecological and parasitological investigations. In stratified areas haddocks and whitings feed specifically and invariably on pelagic hyperiids. The number of ingested hyperiids in these areas was in both fish species correlated with infestation rates of H. aduncum. Therefore, hyperiids were identified as the obligatory intermediated host of H. aduncum, since these crustaceans carried high numbers of nematode larvae in their haemocoel. The results of the present study demonstrate that haddocks and whitings from the stratified waters are highly parasitised, both in terms of the numbers of individuals of larval and adult stages of H. aduncum.

References

  1. Auel H, Harjes M, da Rocha E, Stübing D, Hagen W (2002) Lipid biomarkers indicate different ecological niches and trophic relationships of the Arctic hyperiid amphipods Themisto abyssorum and T. libellula. Polar Biol 25:374–383Google Scholar
  2. Balbuena JA, Karlsbakk E, Saksvik M, Kvenseth AM, Nylund A (1998) New data on the early development of Hysterothylacium aduncum (Nematoda, Anisakidae). J Parasitol 84:615–617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bush AO, Lafferty KH, Lotz JM, Shostak AW (1997) Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms: Margolis et al. revisited. J Parasitol 83:575–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Dalpadado P, Borkner N, Bogstad B, Mehl S (2001) Distribution of Themisto (Amphipoda) spp. in the Barents Sea and predator-prey interactions. ICES J Mar Sci 58:876–895Google Scholar
  5. Hartwich G (1975) Schlauchwürmer, Nemathelminthes, Rund—oder Fadenwürmer, Nematoda parasitische Rundwürmer von Wirbeltieren. I. Rhabditida und Ascaridida. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands, Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  6. Hyslop EJ (1980) Stomach content analysis—a review of methods and their application. J Fish Biol 17:411–429Google Scholar
  7. Klimpel S, Seehagen A, Palm HW, Rosenthal H (2001) Deep-water metazoan fish parasites of the world. Logos, Berlin, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  8. Klimpel S, Palm HW, Seehagen A (2003a) Metazoan parasites and food composition of juvenile Etmopterus spinax (L., 1758) (Dalatiidae, Squaliformes) from the Norwegian Deep. Parasitol Res 89:245–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Klimpel S, Seehagen A, Palm HW (2003b) Metazoan parasites and feeding behaviour of four small-sized fish species from the central North Sea. Parasitol Res 91:290–207CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Klimpel S, Palm HW, Rückert S, Piatkowski U (2004) The life cycle of Anisakis simplex in the Norwegian Deep (northern North Sea). Parasitol Res 94:1–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Køie M (1993) Aspects of the life-cycle and morphology of Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea, Anisakidae). Can J Zool 71:1289–1296Google Scholar
  12. Lick R (1991) Untersuchungen zu Lebenszyklus (Krebse–Fische–marine Säuger) und Gefrierresistenz anisakider Nematoden in Nord-und Ostsee. Ber Inst Meereskd Kiel 218:1–195Google Scholar
  13. Marcogliese DJ (1996) Larval nematodes infection marine crustaceans in eastern Canada. 3. Hysterothylacium aduncum. J Helminthol Soc Wash 63:12–18Google Scholar
  14. Munk P, Nielsen TG (1994) Trophodynamics of the plankton community at Dogger Bank: predatory impact by larval fish. J Plankton Res 16:1225–1245Google Scholar
  15. Navone GT, Sardella NH, Timi JT (1998) Larvae and adults of Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in fishes and crustaceans in the South West Atlantic. Parasite 5:127–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Øresland V (1986) Parasites of the chaetognath Sagitta setosa in the western English Channel. Mar Biol 92:87–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Palm HW, Klimpel S, Bucher C (1999) Checklist of metazoan fish parasites of German coastal waters. Ber Inst Meereskd Kiel 307:1–148Google Scholar
  18. Parker GA, Chubb JC, Ball MA, Roberts GN (2003) Evolution of complex life cycles in helminth parasites. Nature 425:480–484CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Petter AJ, Cabaret J (1995) Ascaridoid nematodes of teleostean fishes from the eastern North Atlantic and seas of the north of Europe. Parasite 2:217–230Google Scholar
  20. Pinkas L, Oliphant MS, Iverson ILK (1971) Food habits of albacore, bluefin tuna and bonito in California waters. Calif Dep Fish Game, Fish Bull 182:1–105Google Scholar
  21. Richardson K, Nielsen TG, Bo Pedersen F, Heilmann JP, Lokkegaard B, Kaas H (1998) Spatial heterogeneity in the structure of the planktonic food web in the North Sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 168:197–211Google Scholar
  22. Riemann F (1988) Nematoda. In: Higgins RP, Thiel H (eds) Introduction to the study of meiofauna. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA, pp 293–301Google Scholar
  23. Sheader M, Evans F (1975) Feeding and gut structure of Parathemisto gaudichaudi (Guerin) (Amphipoda, Hyperiidae). J Mar Biol Assoc UK 55:641–656Google Scholar
  24. Svendsen YS (1990) Hosts of third stage larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. (Nematoda, Anisakidae) in zooplankton from outer Oslofjord, Norway. Sarsia 75:161–167Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Zoomorphology, Cell Biology and ParasitologyHeinrich-Heine-University DüsseldorfDüsseldorfGermany
  2. 2.Center for Tropical Marine Ecology BremenGermany

Personalised recommendations